Body paragraphs will often begin with a summary of the controlling idea: The topic sentence summarises the paragraph in the same way that the thesis statement summarises the whole essay. The rest of the paragraph supports that topic sentence, by explaining it in detail, giving an example, or citing evidence that reinforces it.
Explanations use logic to fully explain the point raised in the topic sentence. It is not enough to just explain an idea, however: Outside sources can be quoted, summarised, or paraphrased.
For information on the right and wrong ways to do this, see quoting and paraphrasing. Crediting outside sources is known as referencing, and is described in detail in the section titled introduction to referencing. Body paragraphs do not exist in isolation. They should fit together like a jigsaw puzzle. Transitions show the connections between paragraphs themselves, and the connections between the paragraphs and the overall focus of the essay the thesis statement. They often appear at the end of a paragraph.
Transitions are essential for maintaining momentum in your essay and showing the reader how all the ideas fit together. They are described in detail in the next section, essay flow. See sample essay 1 and sample essay 2 for model body paragraphs. Have a study or assignment writing question? Alumni Merchandise Chapters Benefits more News Latest releases Research news University news more Events and key dates Albany campus Manawatu campus Wellington campus more Jobs Academic General Staff benefits more Body 2 Paragraph 4: Body 3 Paragraph 5: Though it may seem formulaic — and, well, it is - the idea behind this structure is to make it easier for the reader to navigate the ideas put forth in an essay.
You see, if your essay has the same structure as every other one, any reader should be able to quickly and easily find the information most relevant to them. The principle purpose of the introduction is to present your position this is also known as the "thesis" or "argument" on the issue at hand but effective introductory paragraphs are so much more than that.
Examples of effective hooks include relevant quotations "no man is an island" or surprising statistics "three out of four doctors report that…".
Following the thesis, you should provide a mini-outline which previews the examples you will use to support your thesis in the rest of the essay. Not only does this tell the reader what to expect in the paragraphs to come but it also gives them a clearer understanding of what the essay is about.
Finally, designing the last sentence in this way has the added benefit of seamlessly moving the reader to the first paragraph of the body of the paper.
In this way we can see that the basic introduction does not need to be much more than three or four sentences in length. If yours is much longer you might want to consider editing it down a bit! Here, by way of example, is an introductory paragraph to an essay in response to the following question:. Because this is the first paragraph of your essay it is your opportunity to give the reader the best first impression possible.
The introductory paragraph not only gives the reader an idea of what you will talk about but also shows them how you will talk about it. At the same time, unless it is a personal narrative, avoid personal pronouns like I, My, or Me.
Try instead to be more general and you will have your reader hooked. The middle paragraphs of the essay are collectively known as the body paragraphs and, as alluded to above, the main purpose of a body paragraph is to spell out in detail the examples that support your thesis.
For the first body paragraph you should use your strongest argument or most significant example unless some other more obvious beginning point as in the case of chronological explanations is required.
The first sentence of this paragraph should be the topic sentence of the paragraph that directly relates to the examples listed in the mini-outline of introductory paragraph. A one sentence body paragraph that simply cites the example of "George Washington" or "LeBron James" is not enough, however. No, following this an effective essay will follow up on this topic sentence by explaining to the reader, in detail, who or what an example is and, more importantly, why that example is relevant.
Even the most famous examples need context. The reader needs to know this and it is your job as the writer to paint the appropriate picture for them. To do this, it is a good idea to provide the reader with five or six relevant facts about the life in general or event in particular you believe most clearly illustrates your point. Having done that, you then need to explain exactly why this example proves your thesis.
The importance of this step cannot be understated although it clearly can be underlined ; this is, after all, the whole reason you are providing the example in the first place. Seal the deal by directly stating why this example is relevant. Your analysis should make up the majority of your paragraph.
Have as many as you need to get your ideas across. The topic sentences of your body paragraphs should be determined by how you grouped your notes when you were outlining. When choosing quotes to put in your final paper, keep in mind that some information works better in quote form and some is better as an indirect quote paraphrased.
Take the following example: The best quotes contain analysis, opinion, or interpretation. When quoting directly from a source, be sure that the quote is interesting. Take the following example:. The opinion part—that local debts in China are a time bomb—is a direct quotation from a credible source a professor.
The fact—that debt is now 14 trillion yuan—is not quoted, since it would be a boring quote. Try to embed quotes into your writing smoothly by placing them in a sentence of your own, rather than just plopping them in your paper.
Your paper should contain a number of points that make your argument. These points should be substantiated by data—either in the form of direct quotes or paraphrasing. Good points are usually written with the following framework: Why are you citing this particular evidence? What is the quote adding to your paper?
When you bring up a source for the first time, you will want to state its credentials to demonstrate that you are citing an authoritative source and not just a random person. Keep in mind that if you are paraphrasing from a source, it may not be necessary to introduce it. Use your own discretion.
The body of the essay. The function of the essay's body is to fully develop the argument outlined in the introduction. Each paragraph within the body of the essay elaborates on one major point in the development of the overall argument (although some points may consist of a number of sub-points, each of which will need a paragraph).
In the body of the essay, all the preparation up to this point comes to fruition. The topic you have chosen must now be explained, described, or argued. Each main idea that you wrote down in your diagram or outline will become one of the body paragraphs. If you had three or four main ideas, you will have three or four body paragraphs.
Essay body is the main part of your essay writing where you present your thoughts and evidence. Each body paragraph introduces a new idea, for example if you have developed five ideas in your thesis you should present five paragraphs in the body. The body paragraphs are where you present your paper’s main points. Your body paragraphs should contain ample textual evidence, be correctly formatted, and have seamless transitions. The body is the meat and potatoes of your essay.
The body paragraphs will explain your essay's topic. Each of the main ideas that you listed in your outline will become a paragraph in your essay. If your outline contained three main ideas, you will have three body paragraphs. Start by writing down one of your main ideas, in sentence form. With the body of an essay - in other words, the middle paragraphs that don't include the introduction and conclusion - it's important to think about paragraph development.