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❶The Kantian ethics says, "Never treat any person as a means, but as an end.

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Existentialism

Even though one is part of an adamant universe, one becomes the subject of his or her own life, a unique and idiosyncratic being. Nodding explains a basic concept of existentialism, that "people are not thrown into the world with a nature…only by planning, reflecting, choosing and acting, people can make themselves" p. To Greene , a person only passes through life once and therefore must begin creating his or her own identity. In other words, people are born with no true identity or sense of self; they construct themselves over time.

One can do this by taking "responsible action for the sake of wholeness, to correct lacks in concrete situations and thus alter themselves in the light of some projected ideal" p. Knowledge is said "to be the way a [person] comes in touch with [his or her] world, puts questions to it, transforms its component parts into signs and tools, and translates [his or her] findings in words.

Knowledge is used "to clarify and to open up a life" Greene, , p. Through knowledge, one builds a life day to day. Rather than illustrating their messages through argumentation and persuasion, as other philosophies have done, existentialists use the venue of stories to propagate their message.

They do this because they believe that "life is not the unfolding of a logical plan; one cannot argue from trustworthy premises what a life should be like or how it should be lived…meaning is created as we live our lives reflectively. Characters generally face a life of "angst, anxiety and alienation in an absurd universe" Gutek, , p.

The mission of existentialism "analyzes the basic character of human existence and calls the attention of [people] to their freedom" Wingo, , p. However, much can be gleaned from the original words of thinkers that apply to the state of an existentialist education, as education has come to be seen as "a foundation of human progress" Park, , p. Furthermore, a "careful" understanding of existentialism reveals "strong qualitative ties which provide a framework for understanding the roles individuals play, and how they struggle with those roles in educational institutions" Duemer, A few modern philosophers, including Van Cleve Morris and George Kneller, have written extensively, applying existential thought to education.

In an existentialist school, individualism must be "the center of educational endeavor" Knight, , p. Van Cleve Morris sees education as a way "to awaken awareness in the learner," with the task of education falling chiefly on secondary schools at a time when schools provide "occasions and circumstances for the awakening and intensification of awareness" Park, , p. He says that prior to puberty a time called the Pre-Existential Period , children are not really aware of the human condition or yet conscious of their personal identity and should learn the basics of education.

For example, they both agree that what matters most is action. First, I will examine what Sartre means by anguish. Having this absolute freedom means that every action we take is the result of a conscious choice from many possibilities. We are free to choose whatever we want, and any situation that involves making a choice has countless options.

The next critical point to understand is that since our actions define who we are, man is responsible for himself. But, as Sartre explains, we are not only fully responsible for ourselves, but we are also responsible for every other human being and for mankind as a whole. In his own words: I am creating a certain image of man of my own choosing. In choosing myself, I choose man. That we have total freedom to act in any way we choose, knowing that there are no constraints or pre-defined values that we must adhere to, paired with the enormous responsibility of knowing our choice impacts all humanity is what causes one to be in anguish.

The example of the military leader consciously choosing a course of action knowing that he is responsible for the death of his own men, the death of his enemies, and for other forms of destruction. In this example, anguish is defined by the direct responsibility to the other men that the action involves.

If one attempts to deny his total freedom or responsibility to all men in order to avoid the emotion of anguish , he is acting in bad faith. Thus, anguish is a direct result of acknowledging that we are condemned to be free, accepting the implications of such, knowing that we cannot escape our obligation to choose, and taking full responsibility for our actions and their consequences.

While anguish is thought of by most as a negative emotion worth avoiding, Sartre believes that being in anguish is being in good faith. This emotion reveals positives to the person who is feeling it. The philosophy of existentialism started in the 19th century, years before it created a huge impact in society.

Existentialism has a complex meaning and cannot be stated with a fixed description. What is existentialism exactly and how did it influence lives to shape our culture into what it is today?

After World War I, the enthusiastic spirit people once had was destroyed because of the war. The Second World War that followed did not help recuperate the spirit there was before. Contrary to popular belief existentialism is not an atheistic philosophy — which comes from the notion that most followers are atheists. In fact the precursors were religious men. Kierkegaard and Nietzsche were religious philosophers back in the 19 th century Age, The credit goes to Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus, both writers and atheists who popularized the philosophy with their works.

Existentialism reached its zenith after the wars and it became a popular theme in the literature world. Needless to say existentialism is not about religion; anyone with religious or non-religious beliefs is free to be enamored with the philosophy Flynn, Let us take an example of existentialism in the film world. You may be familiar with Forrest Gump staring Tom Hanks.

This story emphasized existentialism in the theme. It depicts a mentally handicapped man — but capable nonetheless - to try define his existence as an individual. His journey sent him into successful careers in college football, as a soldier across Asia , as a player in ping-pong, as a shrimp fisher, as an inspiring runner, and finally into a dotting father.

Both stories underline the message of individuals unbound with fate. There is no fate. Forrest was never to become an invalid like his condition dictated him to be.


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Free existentialism papers, essays, and research papers. Existentialism in Franz Kafka's Metamorphosis - Existentialism in Franz Kafka's Metamorphosis In Franz Kafka’s short story, Metamorphosis, the idea of existentialism is brought out in .

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Existentialism is a philosophy whose popularity was greatest in the 20th century, particularly during and after World War II. Existentialist thought was introduced through literary works written.

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Free Essays from Bartleby | Determinism and Existentialism in view of same-sex marriage The traditional determinism principle states that anything that. In existentialism, human person and his freedom are given great importance. In it the ancient personal value stressed by stoics and epicureans and exemplified in Socrates' hemlock drinking has been Short Essay on Existentialism.

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An Essay by Jean-Paul Sartre. Philosophymagazine. Existentialism. Freedom and Responsibility. —Jean-Paul Sartre. Existentialism. I should like on this occasion to defend existentialism against some charges which have been brought against it. First, it has been charged with inviting people to remain in a kind of desperate quietism . Mar 30,  · Existentialism Essay existentialism research paper - Words Existentialism is a philosophy the prospered throughout the twentieth century and holds a variety of important ideals such as Freedom, Individualism, and Existence and Essence.