It was implemented in and over the course of two decades was shown to improve opportunities for women and minorities in most cases Leonard At its inception it was controversial and unwelcome, but its effects could not be denied. As of a study conducted in Among females, it has increased the demand for blacks relative to whites by This study was conducted over the course of six years, from to , and shows clear improvement in workplace diversity.
By creating a program that ensured the hiring of a certain number of minority workers , employers would be able to see that a different worker, not a white male, could complete tasks just as efficiently and effectively as their coworkers. Additionally, this program was placed under the with the hopes of eliminating worker discrimination and the negative stereotypes seen between races that work together.
This provides evidence that the system worked when it was first implemented. However, the key social issue that made affirmative action necessary has changed.
While no one could claim that racial prejudice is gone, it is also not as simple as it once was and racial stereotypes are now even further propagated by the media. The places where affirmative action once helped, it is largely no longer necessary. Truly, competitive institutions of business and education have to tap whatever talent pool is available.
There are also statistics to suggest that white males have actually become a minority in the work force, making a policy that excludes their opportunities harmful to genuine equality Thomas, Jr. If this trend proceeds unchecked, before long affirmative action will have to include white males as well and simply become a comprehensive government regulation for education and workplace demographics.
According to the information provided by Thomas Jr Though he notes that white males born within the United States are still the dominant force in terms of the high power positions within the workplace, they are, statistically speaking, a minority. Based on the current trends, white males will only make up 15 percent of the increased work force over the next 10 years if figures hold the same as projected Thomas, Jr. This will literally reverse the effects the affirmative action was trying to prevent in the first place.
Even worse than its misdirection in modern times, is the evidence that affirmative action is actually harmful to equality. While the policy does force employers and educators to accept minorities, it has become such a fixture and such a rigid mandate that those minorities are often seen as inferior in their positions simply because they were entitled to that position Coate This kind of prejudice cannot be regulated away and is the kind of social prejudice that actually creates diversity gaps.
The only thing a policy can do is limit the ways prejudice manifests itself in official situations. To truly correct the issue of ethnic and gender inequality, it has to be addressed at the fundamental level. Since affirmative action was first proven effective in the s, conditions have changed. It is now necessary to consider merit instead of simple statistical qualities Sturm Prejudice is no longer simply a matter of socioeconomic status or gender or ethnicity and the only way left to rise above social prejudices is through attention to individual value, rather than group identification Sidanius It might be easier to hope that affirmative action is still valid and effective, but social conditions change over time and a new tactic needs to be considered for addressing the issues that actually account for prejudice in the modern age, rather than the symptom of decades past.
As noted in the findings of Coate and Loury:. This can be especially true in an economic situation that currently faces the nation. Presently, finding employment is very difficult for almost everyone in the country as job growth continues to diminish.
The influence that affirmative action has on the hiring process can, even if unwarranted, lead to hostile feelings and tension between races. Individuals that do not secure a job could blame the minorities that have jobs at a company because they received aid from a government program. Individuals that claim this will usually also state that affirmative action will overlook a better-suited white worker to hire a minority worker in his place.
Regardless of whether this claim is true, the mere existence of a program like affirmative action can create an environment of hostility and tension for minority workers even if they are the most qualified for the job.
In fact, the system in place can create an atmosphere where regardless of the skill set of a minority worker, they will be underappreciated and have their skills downplayed because of the rationale that they were hired simply because they belong to a minority. The statistical information provided from his study backs this statement, however the interesting aspect that he raises is the incorporation of the scrutiny that the program had to endure.
He notes the affirmative action has:. Generally, the racially discriminative practices that were once common occurrences during the early to mid 20th century have subsided, yet research shows a type of "reverse discrimination" that has been the result. Society has moved more and more towards a world where the practices that the program is trying to defend against are becoming obsolete. This is not to claim that racism, as a whole is not an issue, however it is becoming, in some cases, almost an issue in the reverse of what was originally intended from the implication of affirmative action.
The program now almost creates an opposite effect. Instead of continuing the practices that affirmative action has laid out for minorities--both men and women, the system should be looked at from the interior workings of companies. It is no longer as prevalent of an issue of getting the minority workers into entry-level positions within a company and the history of affirmative action in education demonstrates the need for restructuring.
The issue presents itself with their promotion and advancement once they have secured employment Thomas, Jr. By reconstructing the system, affirmative action can:. While this is still not the ideal solution to the iniquities which accompany affirmative action, it is a definite step in the right direction.
The issue of affirmative action can be applied to a larger issue for the nation as a whole, namely:. Instead, a solution that will either cover up the problem or keep it from becoming larger is created and replaced as needed over time. This is exactly what is seen with the issue of affirmative action. When it was first implemented in America, the issue of racial discrimination , as well as gender discrimination, was a large issue in the world of both employment and academics. However, instead of combating the problem and making fundamental changes to the way that society deals with and views race and gender, the United States was forced to implement a program that forced those that may discriminate in their choosing process to have a certain number of openings be filled by minorities.
As noted, when first implemented this system was not only needed but successful, however as it becomes more and more clear that the program has become outdated and needs either a major overhaul or to be shut down. The factors of lack of public empathy and general laziness have reemerged and slowed the progression to a unified solution. Affirmative action did its job effectively and admirably, however society has shifted since it was first put into effect.
In addition, research has found that formal charges of discrimination led to a decrease in stock prices, and public recognition of affirmative action excellence led to a temporary increase in stock prices. In short, there is evidence that affirmative action helps target group members, but no empirical evidence that it harms organizations.
The conclusions drawn above must be tempered by limitations in the research. Much of the research on target and non-target group members' reactions has used experiments, which necessarily simplify matters. This has the advantage of increasing internal validity, but does not permit exploration of the complexity of affirmative action attitudes.
Research using surveys, in contrast, is more likely to permit such exploration. Survey research, however, lacks internal validity. Indeed, all research on individual difference variables e. Ideally, every question should be addressed with multiple research strategies, and the weaknesses of one strategy will be balanced by the strengths of others McGrath, Unfortunately, as we have mentioned throughout this review, many questions have been addressed in limited ways.
For example, research on self-stigmatization has been limited to reactions of women to gender-based selection in mainly laboratory experiments. Another potential limitation is the contextual realism of the research and stimuli for participants. In comparison to actual AAPs, the stimuli used in most of this research have been simplistic. In addition, except for a few field studies with employed adults, this research has not been done within the context of an actual AAP.
Furthermore, much of the research has been done with undergraduates who typically have had little direct experience with affirmative action. This lack of direct experience has important implications for how "crystallized" attitudes towards AAPs may be, and therefore how easy they are to change or how strongly they manifest themselves in behavior.
On a related point, there is a great need for research on what organizations actually do to implement their AAPs cf. This information could be used to improve the mundane realism of research on reactions to AAPs, and to evaluate the accuracy of public beliefs. There is also a need for research on public beliefs about what actions are and should be included in AAPs.
This information would help administrators develop AAPs that help the target groups without stimulating resentment and opposition. Confusion about what affirmative action entails has been increased by inconsistent statements made by decision makers and published by the media.
A similar confusion reigns in the professional literature. In brief, operational definitions of affirmative action have varied considerably, but this variation has not been accompanied by a parallel variation in terminology. Thus, some people operationalize affirmative action as quotas, others as preferential treatment weak, strong, or unspecified , others as recruitment, others as the elimination of discrimination, etc.
Given the strong effect of AAP structure on reactions, this inconsistency in operational definitions has sometimes led to a parallel inconsistency in results. We recommend that researchers use more precise terms when describing their research; "affirmative action" is too vague. Most of the research we reviewed was performed in the United States, although Canada, New Zealand, and the Netherlands were also represented.
There is a need for additional research on affirmative action in other countries, and for an additional attention to cultural influences on reactions to affirmative action. In addition, the political climate in the United States has changed considerably since , when EO was issued. A review linking affirmative action attitudes to other changes over time would be a valuable contribution. Another important question is how individuals' attitudes change over time, especially as a function of experience with affirmative action; we know of no longitudinal research on this question.
Still another important question is how job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and similar variables are related to reactions to the organization's affirmative action plan.
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Sample Affirmative Action Essay Affirmative action is an issue closely related to cultural diversity. It affects the entire employed and unemployed population of the United States.
Affirmative Action is Discrimination Affirmative action is a plan designed to end discrimination by guaranteeing minorities will be hired, regardless of race or gender. A discussion of the impact of the controversial policy of Affirmative Action, its effectiveness and the continued adherence to a seemingly outdated policy. Essay on Affirmative Action - Blog | Ultius Go to5/5(1).
Affirmative action essay conclusion To evaluate the writing, and science education and has a disability, putting conclusion essay affirmative action up a head of your ndings for theory andor practice future research publication or project report, so you . In conclusion, previous research provides numerous questions and hypotheses about affirmative action attitudes and about how affirmative action affects target group members and non-members. Some conclusions can now be drawn with confidence, but much more research is needed before we can claim to thoroughly understand the psychological and.