Involved in the viva are two examiners and the candidate. One examiner is an academic from the candidate's own university department but not one of the candidate's supervisors and the other is an external examiner from a different university. Engineering qualifications such as BTech, B. In all the cases, the dissertation can be extended for summer internship at certain research and development organizations or also as PhD synopsis.
In Indonesia, the term thesis is used specifically to refer to master's theses. The undergraduate thesis is called skripsi , while the doctoral dissertation is called disertasi. In general, those three terms are usually called as tugas akhir final assignment , which is mandatory for the completion of a degree. Undergraduate students usually begin to write their final assignment in their third, fourth or fifth enrollment year, depends on the requirements of their respective disciplines and universities.
In some universities, students are required to write a proposal skripsi or proposal tesis thesis proposal before they could write their final assignment. If the thesis proposal is considered to fulfill the qualification by the academic examiners, students then may proceed to write their final assignment.
In Italy there are normally three types of thesis. In order of complexity: Thesis requirements vary greatly between degrees and disciplines, ranging from as low as 3—4 ECTS credits to more than Thesis work is mandatory for the completion of a degree. Malaysian universities often follow the British model for dissertations and degrees.
However, a few universities follow the United States model for theses and dissertations. Branch campuses of British, Australian and Middle East universities in Malaysia use the respective models of the home campuses.
In Pakistan, at undergraduate level the thesis is usually called final year project, as it is completed in the senior year of the degree, the name project usually implies that the work carried out is less extensive than a thesis and bears lesser credit hours too.
The undergraduate level project is presented through an elaborate written report and a presentation to the advisor, a board of faculty members and students.
At graduate level however, i. A written report and a public thesis defense is mandatory, in the presence of a board of senior researchers, consisting of members from an outside organization or a university. A PhD candidate is supposed to accomplish extensive research work to fulfill the dissertation requirements with international publications being a mandatory requirement. The defense of the research work is done publicly.
However, in Philippine English , the term doctorate is typically replaced with doctoral as in the case of "doctoral dissertation" , though in official documentation the former is still used. The Philippine system is influenced by American collegiate system, in that it requires a research project to be submitted before being allowed to write a thesis.
This project is mostly given as a prerequisite writing course to the actual thesis and is accomplished in the term period before; supervision is provided by one professor assigned to a class. This project is later to be presented in front of an academic panel, often the entire faculty of an academic department, with their recommendations contributing to the acceptance, revision, or rejection of the initial topic.
In addition, the presentation of the research project will help the candidate choose their primary thesis adviser. An undergraduate thesis is completed in the final year of the degree alongside existing seminar lecture or laboratory courses, and is often divided into two presentations: In most universities, a thesis is required for the bestowment of a degree to a candidate alongside a number of units earned throughout their academic period of stay, though for practice and skills-based degrees a practicum and a written report can be achieved instead.
The examination board often consists of 3 to 5 examiners, often professors in a university with a Masters or PhD degree depending on the university's examination rules. Required word length, complexity, and contribution to scholarship varies widely across universities in the country.
The academic dissertation for a PhD is called a dysertacja or praca doktorska. The submission for the Habilitation is called praca habilitacyjna" or dysertacja habilitacyjna".
Thus the term dysertacja is reserved for PhD and Habilitation degrees. All the theses need to be "defended" by the author during a special examination for the given degree. Examinations for PhD and Habilitation degrees are public. The defense is done in a public presentation in which teachers, students, and the general public can participate. For the PhD, a thesis tese is presented for defense in a public exam.
The exam typically extends over 3 hours. The examination board typically involves 5 to 6 scholars including the advisor or other experts with a PhD degree generally at least half of them must be external to the university where the candidate defends the thesis, but it may depend on the University.
In Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, and Ukraine an academic dissertation or thesis is called what can be literally translated as a "master's degree work" thesis , whereas the word dissertation is reserved for doctoral theses Candidate of Sciences. To complete a master's degree, a student is required to write a thesis and to then defend the work publicly.
Length of this manuscript usually is given in page count and depends upon educational institution, its departments, faculties, and fields of study [ citation needed ]. At universities in Slovenia, an academic thesis called diploma thesis is a prerequisite for completing undergraduate studies.
The thesis used to be 40—60 pages long, but has been reduced to 20—30 pages in new Bologna process programmes. To complete Master's studies, a candidate must write magistrsko delo Master's thesis that is longer and more detailed than the undergraduate thesis.
The required submission for the doctorate is called doktorska disertacija doctoral dissertation. In pre Bologna programmes students were able to skip the preparation and presentation of a Master's thesis and continue straightforward towards doctorate. In Sweden, there are different types of theses.
After that there are two types of post graduate degrees, Licentiate dissertation and PhD dissertation. A licentiate degree is approximately "half a PhD" in terms of size and scope of the thesis. Swedish PhD studies should in theory last for four years, including course work and thesis work, but as many PhD students also teach, the PhD often takes longer to complete. Outside the academic community, the terms thesis and dissertation are interchangeable.
A wide range of supervisory arrangements can be found in the British academy, from single supervisors more usual for undergraduate and Masters level work to supervisory teams of up to three supervisors.
In teams, there will often be a Director of Studies, usually someone with broader experience perhaps having passed some threshold of successful supervisions. The Director may be involved with regular supervision along with the other supervisors, or may have more of an oversight role, with the other supervisors taking on the more day-to-day responsibilities of supervision. At most universities, dissertation is the term for the required submission for the doctorate, and thesis refers only to the master's degree requirement.
Thesis is also used to describe a cumulative project for a bachelor's degree and is more common at selective colleges and universities, or for those seeking admittance to graduate school or to obtain an honors academic designation. These projects are called "senior projects" or "senior theses"; they are generally done in the senior year near graduation after having completed other courses, the independent study period, and the internship or student teaching period the completion of most of the requirements before the writing of the paper ensures adequate knowledge and aptitude for the challenge.
Unlike a dissertation or master's thesis, they are not as long and they do not require a novel contribution to knowledge or even a very narrow focus on a set subtopic. Like them, they can be lengthy and require months of work, they require supervision by at least one professor adviser, they must be focused on a certain area of knowledge, and they must use an appreciable amount of scholarly citations.
They may or may not be defended before a committee but usually are not; there is generally no preceding examination before the writing of the paper, except for at very few colleges. Because of the nature of the graduate thesis or dissertation having to be more narrow and more novel, the result of original research, these usually have a smaller proportion of the work that is cited from other sources, though the fact that they are lengthier may mean they still have total citations.
Specific undergraduate courses, especially writing-intensive courses or courses taken by upperclassmen, may also require one or more extensive written assignments referred to variously as theses, essays, or papers.
Increasingly, high schools are requiring students to complete a senior project or senior thesis on a chosen topic during the final year as a prerequisite for graduation. The extended essay component of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme , offered in a growing number of American high schools, is another example of this trend. Generally speaking, a dissertation is judged as to whether or not it makes an original and unique contribution to scholarship. Lesser projects a master's thesis, for example are judged by whether or not they demonstrate mastery of available scholarship in the presentation of an idea.
The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis may vary significantly among universities or programs. One of the requirements for certain advanced degrees is often an oral examination called a viva voce examination or just viva in the UK and certain other English-speaking countries. This examination normally occurs after the dissertation is finished but before it is submitted to the university, and may comprise a presentation often public by the student and questions posed by an examining committee or jury.
In North America, an initial oral examination in the field of specialization may take place just before the student settles down to work on the dissertation. An additional oral exam may take place after the dissertation is completed and is known as a thesis or dissertation " defense ", which at some universities may be a mere formality and at others may result in the student being required to make significant revisions.
The result of the examination may be given immediately following deliberation by the examiners in which case the candidate may immediately be considered to have received his or her degree , or at a later date, in which case the examiners may prepare a defense report that is forwarded to a Board or Committee of Postgraduate Studies, which then officially recommends the candidate for the degree.
At most North American institutions the latter two verdicts are extremely rare, for two reasons. First, to obtain the status of doctoral candidates, graduate students typically write a qualifying examination or comprehensive examination, which often includes an oral defense.
Murine in vivo tumor models for investigating the anticancer potential of natural and synthetic compounds. The mediating effect of organizational culture on transformational leadership and performance in small and medium enterprises in Peru.
Wirkmechanismen neuer Therapeutika bei wachstumshormonproduzierendem Hypophysentumor. An Ecology Not Taking-Place: Place marketing and foreign direct investments in the changing ICT era. The Evil Concept in the work of Agatha Christie. Biohydrogen Production from Synthetic Lignocellulosic Hydrolysates: Haroun, Basem Mikhaeil Fawzy. Taide- ja taitoaineet alkuopetuksessa.
Mohamed, Tamer Mohamed Abdellatif. Localization and trafficking of Pannexin 1 in polarized and non-polarized cells. Emphasizing on the Rhythm Generation Mechanism. Face, Vocalisation and Violence in an Ethics of Relating. Omroep West kijkt vooruit. Hoe Omroep West-redacteuren constructieve journalistiek ervaren. Knowledge building in software developer communities. Chinese youth volunteers in Ethiopia: Ecuaciones lineales con dos variables: Pariona Tarqui, Leoncia Dania.
Regulating for-profit private health care providers in the context of universal health coverage: Pulliti Carrasco, Yelinna Beatriz. Modeling Fluid Coker Cyclone Fouling. However, liposome composition measurements are currently limited to bulk solutions. This instrument uses a sheath flow cuvette combined with laser induced fluorescence detection for high sensitivity measurements of single vesicles. Single vesicle resolution was obtained through optimization of the sheath and capillary flow rates.
These measurements revealed heterogenous lipid distribution within the same vesicle population. The single vesicle measurements using this instrument allow for more quantitative measurements when using fluorophores. The University of Arizona. Why Villa survives through myth continues relatively unexplored. To analyze the origins of the myth and it construction over time provides an understanding of how ordinary people participated in fashioning their own ideas of nationalism. It further describes and analyses how from the 's onward, these collective memories were transplanted to a wider audience by mass media; further shaping imagined perceptions that in one way or another persist until our day.
Utopian Projects and the Troubled Paradise. This dissertation aims to understand how residents of the poorest area of Fortaleza—Conjunto Palmeiras—respond to these problems. Conjunto Palmeiras is an extremely poor neighborhood and has the highest homicide rates in the city, yet it is also an important site of activism. Therefore, I seek to understand the tensions between poverty and activism present throughout the history of this neighborhood.
What does Conjunto Palmeiras tell us about how marginalized people living in a peripheral neighborhood manage to create and develop political imaginaries of change and act upon them? I ask this question with reference to three historical moments between and when collective attempts of problem-solving are clearly evident. The first of such episodes is represented by s to late s period, marking the military dictatorship in Brazil, but also one in which a wave of social movements accompanied the democratization process.
The second of these moments is represented by the period to , which in Latin America, in general, marked the Pink Tide, an era of governance by leftist parties, specifically by the Workers' Party PT in Brazil.
My focus here is on understanding the contradictions embedded in the institutionalization of a once grassroots project—the solidarity economy movement, rooted in liberation theology—into a state-sponsored program.
This dissertation emphasizes that the creation of local political imaginaries, upon which activists developed particular strategies, has been constantly shaped by activists' personal life experiences and interaction with both liberation theology and PT leaders.
Shifting understandings of the political landscape reshaped perceptions of poverty and ways to tackle it at the local level. In Brazil, the 13 years of the PT governance put in place a set of socio-economic programs that enabled social mobility for the country's historically marginalized groups.
However, during this period, the discourses of older social movements that promoted an egalitarian ideology and a working-class consciousness were replaced with more neoliberal and individualistic understandings of poverty.
Yet, over the years, the consciousness-raising process necessary to the formation of a working-class consciousness developed by the liberation theology movement, contributed to the creation of a certain political imaginary among former movement members that inspires the strategies of some local activists. For example, with the increase of homicide rates in Fortaleza, drug related violence emerged in places like Conjunto Palmeiras as a generator of new forms of resistance, where activists dare to challenge the presence and authority of drug gangs through symbolic practices.
Alhomsi, Riyad The University of Arizona. Very little research has been conducted about other less commonly taught languages such as Arabic. Moreover, most of the research focused on the affective aspect of technology integration and not on the potential language gains that learners can get from this integration.
Keeping this in mind, and given that Arabic occupies the eighth place in the top fifteen foreign languages taught in the United States institutions of higher education, more research is warranted to investigate aspects related to teaching Arabic, especially the effects of technology integration on improving language proficiency, learner motivation, and learner autonomy. This study has contributed to the literature by examining technology integration effects on the Arabic language learner motivation, autonomy, and language gains.
Findings from this study seem to support findings from other studies that technology integration increased learner motivation and improved attitude Aust et al.
However, this study found that the correlation between technology use and motivation is not automatic and is only true when: The study also examined how technology use changes learner engagement in autonomous out-of-class learning activities.
Findings suggest that learners have a positive attitude on the versatility and affordances of technology. Moreover, the participants are not only aware of the affordances of technology, more importantly, they seem to have built a clear vision of themselves beyond the classroom and how to achieve that vision. This is a clear indication of an autonomous learner who is able to set their own goals, and the means to achieve them.
The findings also indicate that technology can provide tools that motivate learners to take control of their learning and extend it outside the conventional learning setting. It can personalize the learning experience and help develop a sense of ownership. These findings line up with findings from other studies which indicate that technology promotes ownership and personalized learning Guth, , supports independence and out-of-class engagement Pinkman, , and encourages self-directed learning activities Luke, The last part of the study focused on the effect of the general use of technology on language proficiency, specifically, fluency and accuracy in the writing skill.
Findings from this part of the study show that there is a correlation between technology use and improved writing skill; however, the findings were not statistically significant due to different factors such as the small number of participants.
The study has wider implications for different stakeholders in the educational system including Arabic language teachers, foreign language teachers, Arabic language learners, and educational institutions. This is driven in large part by the unique environment of the mucosal tissues, where host cells reside in close proximity to the microbiota.
The mammalian host incorporates barriers and mechanisms to control interactions with the microbiota, and significant cross-talk occurs between the microbiota constituents and the innate and adaptive elements of the host immune system. While great strides have been made in defining how the microbiota affects the host, particularly in regard to intestinal immunity and function, more remains to be determined regarding how the gut microbiota impacts gut-distal diseases.
Here, we demonstrate that the gut commensal Segmented Filamentous Bacteria SFB is protective in a mouse model of pneumonia in immunodeficient hosts. During the resolution phase of disease, lung neutrophils are decreased, and undergo a phenotypic switch from inflammatory to pro-resolution, mediated in part by downregulation of the anti-efferocytosis transmembrane glycoprotein CD We also show that the purinergic receptor P2X7 is potentially required in a T cell-intrinsic manner to control the development of disease in autoimmune arthritis.
This work contributes to our understanding of how the gut microbiota impacts gut-distal infection and autoimmunity through changes in innate and adaptive immune cells. Keynejad, Saba The University of Arizona. The applicability of these algorithms for predicting and classifying direct or indirect hydrocarbon indicators are assessed and compared to knowledge-driven methods. The efficacy of the various techniques leads to recommendations for utilizing machine learning algorithms in well planning or later cycle hydrocarbon-field development.
In the first study in this dissertation, application of a model-based artificial neural network is compared to the performance of a prestack simultaneous inversion method in predicting hydrocarbon presence in the Heidrun Field, offshore Norway. The direct dependency of the inversion method on the provided input constraints, however, can raise the risk for well planning decisions beyond the known zones. The generalize regression neural network results better matched the observations at the training wells and provided a lower risk of false discoveries in delineating favorable zones beyond the drilled wells.
The second study was conducted with the aim of classifying different facies from well logs in wells of the Heidrun Field and in the Kupe Field, offshore New Zealand. Different machine learning approaches were utilized in this study and to investigate quantitatively and qualitatively the accuracy and stability of their predictions.
Both supervised methods could successfully predict hydrocarbon-bearing units, with the bagged tree algorithm having a higher overall, and hydrocarbon-related, accuracy rate. Application of the bagged-tree algorithm showed a very low false discovery rate for oil sands and no false discoveries for gas sands in the Heidrun Field. Qualitative investigations of Kupe Field results also demonstrated accurate prediction of hydrocarbon-bearing units, including a shaly hydrocarbon sand class defined for low-quality reservoir sands.
Hydrocarbon shows reported in one well that were not predicted by the algorithm, in fact, occur in a very low-porosity section of the reservoir that was not identified as reservoir in reports either. In the last study, the classifications of the litho-fluid facies were extended to three dimensional models using two machine learning methods and were compared with a knowledge-driven approach.
The results were examined through a probabilistic approach to reflect the uncertainty of the predicted classes. The probabilistic neural network and the bagged-tree algorithm successfully predicted the variations of litho-fluid facies, especially for hydrocarbon units. Both methods predicted gas sands in certain parts of the field, away from control points, with similar form and lateral dimension. By comparing the results in predicting oil sands and shale, we interpret the bagged-tree method to be more adherent to the known parameters set by the interpreter, such as the OWC and the target classes.
Predictions from the probabilistic neural network, however, can deviate from the target facies even close to the wells on which it has been trained. The efficiency of machine learning techniques in increasing the prediction accuracy and decreasing the procedure time, and their objective approach toward the data, make it highly desirable to incorporate them in seismic data analyses.
Along with the emphasis on the application of machine learning techniques in the study of subsurface properties, this dissertation presents frameworks for utilizing these techniques as new tools for the interpreter, not as a replacement. The knowledge of the data analyst about the field, and the selection and preparation of the attributes and application of the appropriate algorithm are all crucial factors in this procedure.
Gao, Weichuan The University of Arizona. New quests have opened for advanced optical system design and engineering that require comprehensive understanding of theory and extensive computer simulations.
This dissertation discusses several selected topics in advanced optical design and engineering, including new optical design considerations for systems with ultrafast illumination, engineering of a reflective microscope system in the vacuum ultraviolet and a method to design apochromat and superachromat objectives. For optical systems with ultrafast illumination, a modified definition of Strehl ratio is proposed to quantify chromatic and temporal behavior of ultrafast laser pulses at the optical focus.
A simple method to obtain approximate numerical solutions is given with the help of ray tracing software. Effects of monochromatic aberrations, material dispersion up to the second order and pupil aberrations are discussed.
Challenges of diamond turning fabrication technology are described. Alignment and testing procedures are presented. A correction phase plate design is proposed for improving the as-built system performance, and a sensitivity analysis is carried out. For future work, a new two-stage system design is proposed to address the limitations of the current system. A simple method to design apochromats is proposed, where an apochromat is formed by combining two achromatic doublets with proper scaling of the focal lengths.
A scaling formula is derived to calculate the focal lengths of each component. The formula is developed for lenses in contact and remote lenses with different marginal ray heights. Kulkarni, Ramaprasad The University of Arizona. Three-dimensional reconstructions from segmented X-ray CT images yield detailed information about density distribution, pore structure, pore connectivity, and phase interfaces that can be applied as boundary conditions for fluid dynamics simulations.
However, accurate segmentation of grayscale X-ray CT data to discern solid medium constituents and fluid phases remains a significant challenge. To advance image segmentation, one objective of the dissertation research was the development of a new semi-automated multiphase segmentation algorithm combining K-means KM clustering with a Markov random field MRF framework.
Because the exact phase i. To overcome this problem, a second objective of the dissertation research was to synthesize a three-phase porous medium proxy with exactly known phase boundaries by using a discrete element method in conjunction with lattice Boltzmann fluid dynamics simulation. This approach generates an artificial porous medium with known phase boundaries, comprising spherical particles along with liquid and air.
The largest collection of electronic theses and dissertations available worldwide, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global includes 4 million works from more than 3, universities, and adds more than , works annually.
Virtually every major research library in the world provides access to the ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT) database through one of several formats.
Open Access Theses and Dissertations. Advanced research and scholarship. Theses and dissertations, free to find, free to use. EBSCO Open Dissertations is a collaboration between EBSCO and BiblioLabs to increase traffic and discoverability of ETD research. You can join the movement and add your theses and dissertations to the database, making them freely available to researchers everywhere while increasing traffic to your.
Academic PhD Dissertation Database - Search s pages of free. Post your abstract. Publish your thesis. Print and ebook downloads. What this handout is about Graduate school pundits often cite 50% or more as the attrition rate for ABD students (those who have completed All the requirements of their programs But the Dissertation). Why? This handout will not only answer Continued.