Orphan - First line of a paragraph appearing on the last line of a column of text. Despite rave reviews, the product is generally acknowledged to have come out too late to gain meaningful traction against the iPhone or Google's Android operating system. HP recently announced that it would acquire Palm, which was once the leading smart phone company. PACT - Industry body representing independent cinema and tv producers.
Pasteup - The assemblage of pages by pasting type onto page mockups, which are then photographed to be made into metal plates for the printing press. Pay-per-view - A single programme that the viewer has to pay for. A hand-held computer combining a phone, organiser and web client. PDF - Portable Document Format — a standard file format that allows web publishers to post documents viewable by any user who installs a copy of the free Acrobat Reader.
Peer-to-peer P2P — A network architecture in which users share resources on their own computers directly with others. Often used to speed up videos and large multimedia pieces that can take a long time to download. Napster was an early example of a popular use of peer-to-peer architecture, although it was not fully peer-to-peer.
Today, Skype and BitTorrent are based on peer-to-peer technologies. Perl — A dynamic language that is often used to phrase and sort information because of its powerful abilities in manipulating text. Perl can be used to pull large quantities of data down from websites and standardise and replace information in batch.
Perl was more popular in past years, especially in the computer-assisted reporting community, but it has been overtaken in popularity by languages such as Python and Ruby. Perl still has an active development community and is noted for the scope of its freely available libraries, which simplify development.
Photoblogging - Contributing photos to a blog. Photoshop - noun Computer program used to edit photographs. It is criticized as being slow because it generates web pages on request.
However, Facebook recently released its internally developed version of HipHop for PHP, which is designed to make the language dramatically more efficient. The pica pole is pounded against a metal surface in the ritual of banging out an employee leaving the premises for the last time.
Pixel - An on-screen measurement. Most monitors display around pixels wide by pixels high. Platform — In the technology world, platform refers to the hardware or software that other applications are built upon. Computing platforms include Windows PC and Macintosh.
Podcasts - MP3 audio recordings that can automatically download to a user's computer as soon as they are published online. Pop-up - A web advert that pops up on screen. These are commonly blocked with a pop-up blocker. Posterous — A blogging and publishing platform to which users can submit via e-mail.
It is a for-profit company based in San Francisco that came out of the YCombinator seed start-up program. PostgreSQL is preferred by some in the technology community for its ability to operate as a spatial database, using PostGIS extensions. This enables developers to create applications that sort information based on geography, which can mean sorting by whether various places are within a certain county or pointing out the places that are geographically closest to the user.
Industry body representing UK magazine publishers. Portal - A busy site often used as a starting point online through services such as messaging, news and searches. Programming language — A special type of language used to unambiguously instruct a computer how to perform tasks.
Programming languages are used by software developers to create applications, including those for the web, for mobile phones, and for desktop operating systems.
Puff piece - A news story with editorialised, complimentary statements. PTC - Periodicals Training Council - The lead body for best practice in training and development for the magazine and business media sector.
Primary accreditation body for magazine journalism courses. Pulitzer Prize - American journalism awards. There are fourteen prizes for journalism. The prizes have been awarded by Columbia University since Pulitzer-Prize-winner - An article of surpassing artistry or investigative virtuosity, usually of considerable length, written for Pulitzer jurors rather than the readership of the publication, despite the unlikelihood that the former group will have read it in its entirety before bestowing the laurels.
Pull-out quote - Selected quote from a story highlighted next to the main text. Often used in interviews. Python — A sophisticated computer language that is commonly used for Internet applications. Designed to be a very readable language, it is named after Monty Python. It first appeared in and was originally created by Guido van Rossum, a Dutch computer programmer who now works at Google.
Python files generally end in. QuarkXPress - Desktop publishing program. Radio spectrum - Total capacity of radio frequencies that can be received. Relational database — A piece of software that stores data in a series of tables, with relationships defined between them. A news story might have columns for a headline, date, text and author, where author points to another table containing the author's first name, last name and email address.
Information must be structured, but this allows for powerful queries. Most modern websites use some kind of relational database to store content. Redletter - Exclusive, breaking news coverage of a major news event, printed in red type. Reporters without borders - An organisation founded in that fights for press freedom around the world. Revision - A re-written or improved story, often with additional quotes or facts. Rim editor - A copy editor, a nonentity.
Ruby — An increasingly popular programming language known for being powerful yet easy to write with. The power of Ruby on Rails, which was developed by the Chicago-based firm 37 Signals, comes from how quickly it can be used to create a basic website.
SaaS Software as a Service — A pricing strategy and business model, where companies build a software solution, usually business-to-business, and charge a fixed monthly rate to access it on the Internet.
It is a type of cloud computing. Sacred cow - News or promotional material which a publisher or editor demands be published, often for personal reasons. Satellite television - TV received through a satellite dish. Scoop - An exclusive or first-published story.
Scoopt - the world's first citizen journalism photograph agency owned by Getty Images. It allows people to upload files and others to download in various formats. Scripting language — A programming language designed to be easy to use for everyday or administrative tasks. It may involve trade-offs such as sacrificing some performance for ease of programming. Search box - A tool that allows users to enter a word or phrase to search a database. Sell - Short sentence promoting an article, often pulling out a quote or a interesting sentence.
See also Pull-out quote. SEO can also refer to individuals and companies that offer to provide search engine optimization for websites. SEM Search Engine Marketing — A type of marketing that involves raising a company or product's visibility in search engines by paying to have it appear in search results for a given word. Semantic web — A vision of the web that is almost entirely machine readable, in which documents are published in languages that are designed specifically for data.
It was first articulated by Tim Berners-Lee in While there has been progress toward this front, many say this vision remains largely unrealized. Server-sid — Referring to when network software runs in a central location, the server, rather than on the user's computer, often known as the client.
Also see client side. Serif and Sans serif - Plain font type with or without sans lines perpendicular to the ends of characters. Server - A computer that hosts the pages of a web site. Shockwave - Software that allows the user to play multimedia animations; published by Macromedia. Sinatra - A lightweight framework written in Ruby that can be used to set up web services, APIs and small sites at lightning speed.
Skype - Popular free internet telephony tool sometimes used to produce Skypecasts , or broadcast conference calls. Skyscraper - A vertical banner advert, usually at one side of a web page and 60 x pixels in size.
Slot editor - On a copy desk, the copy editor who checks and corrects the copy of other copy editors before approving it for publication.
The term arises from the obsolete furniture of the newsroom, where once a horseshoe-shaped desk enabled the slot editor to hand out paper copy to the copy editors on the rim, the outside of the horseshoe. Slug - A line of type set in metal on a Linotype machine.
Also the one-word working title of an article as it moves through production. Social bookmarking - A service that allows users to store interesting website addresses publicly on a web page and lets users network and pool recommendations. Social graph — A mapping of the connections between people and the things they care about that could provide useful insights.
The term originally promoted by Facebook and is now gaining broader usage. Social media — A broad term referring to the wide swath of content creation and consumption that is enabled by the many-to-many distributed infrastructure of the Internet.
Unlike legacy media, where the audience is usually on the receiving end of content creation, social media generally allows three stages of interaction with content: Social media is incredibly broad and refers to blogging, wikis, video-sharing sites like YouTube, photo-sharing sites like Flickr and social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter. Spadia - An annoying flap of advertising copy that wraps around a portion of the front page of a section, preventing the reader from seeing the full page.
Spider - Also known as a crawler or ant, a program that uses hyperlinks to make methodical searches of the web to provide information about pages for search engines. Standfirst - Line of text after the headline that gives more information about the article.
The hardest word for a copy editor to use. Sticky content - Content that encourages users to stay on one site for as long as possible.
Strapline - Similar to a subhead or standfirst, but used more as a marketing term. Streaming - Watching or listening to video or audio in real time, rather than downloading files. Structured thesaurus — A group of preferred terms created for editorial use to normalise and more effectively classify content. Sub-editor - The person that checks and edits a reporters' work and adds headlines and standfirsts. Superstitials - A type of rich media advert that downloads gradually without obscuring other content on the page; usually more popular than pop ups.
S3 — An online storage system run by Amazon that's often used as a cheap way to store and serve photos and videos used on websites. It is short for Simple Storage Service. Its fees are often pennies per month per gigabyte, depending on location and bulk discount. The service is often used in conjunction with other Amazon Web Services, such as EC2, to allow customers to process large amounts of data with low capital investment.
Tabloid - Smaller print newspaper size. Tag — A common type of metadata used to describe a piece of content that associates it with other content that has the same tag.
Tags can be specific terms, people, locations, etc. Take - A section of an article. An article that is transmitted to the copy desk or the composing room as it is being written is sent in takes. Taxonomy — A hierarchical classification system.
In the world of content, this can be a hierarchy of terms generally called nodes or entities that are used to classify the category or subject content belongs to as well as terms that are included in the content. In many cases, website navigation systems appear taxonomical in that users narrow down from broad top-level categories to the granular feature they want to see.
An ontology is similar to a taxonomy in that it is also a classification system with nodes or entities, but it is more complex and flexible because ontologies allow for non-hierarchical relationships.
While in a taxonomy a node can be either a broader term or narrower term, in an ontology nodes can be related in any way. Technobabble - Confusing technical jargon. Technorati - Powerful blog search engine. Teeline - A form of shorthand.
Telegraph section - The section, in which national and foreign news was acquired by telegraph in the remote past. The copy was edited on the telegraph desk, a component of the copy desk. Terrestrial television - TV sent through a beam transmitter directly into the home. Testimonial - Endorsement of a product, often by a celebrity or well-respected client.
Thirty - A numeral indicating the conclusion of a take of copy. Tick-tock - A step-by-step account of how a particular event or phenomenon developed. TK - Proofreader's insertion mark for data to come. Sometimes written as TKTK. Tie in - Placing the facts of a new story within the context of past events.
Also known as a tie back. Tombstoning - In page layout, to put articles side by side so that the headlines are adjacent. The phenomenon is also referred to as bumping heads. Traffic - Amount of users recorded by a website. Transparency — In the context of news and information, a term describing openness about information that has become increasingly popular. In many cases it is used to refer to the transparency of government releasing data to journalists and to the public.
It is often used in the context of journalists being open about their reporting process and material by sharing with their readers before the final project emerges or providing more context in addition to the final product. Tumblr — A free short-form blogging platform that allows users to post images, video, links, quotes and audio.
The company is based in New York City and competes with Posterous. Twitter - A service that allows users to send character messages to 'friends' via mobile SMS , website or Instant Messenger. UI User Interface — The part of a software application or website that users see and interact with, which takes into account the visual design and the structure of the program.
While graphic design is an element of user interface design, it is only a portion of the consideration. Unique users - The number of individual users, as identified by unique computer addresses, that visit a web site. Upload - To publish a file on the internet. User-generated content - Material created and submitted to sites by its users - such as photographs, video footage, comments, articles etc. UX User Experience — Generally referring to the area of design that involves the holistic interaction a user has with a product or a service.
It incorporates many disciplines, including engineering, graphic design, content creation and psychology. User interface is one element of user experience. Vertical search engine - A search engine containing information on a specific subject area.
WAP - Wireless Application Protocol - an international standard for the application that enables access to a wireless internet network using a mobile device. Web scraping - Automated process of finding content on web pages and converting it into another form for use on another web site. Warblogs - Opinionated and political web logs. It allows for having several applications open at the same time, unlike the current iPhone.
In contrast to Web 1. Technologies such as Ajax, which allow for rapid communication between the browser and the web server, underlie many Web 2. Widget - application available to download or embed on a desktop, homepage or social network. Allows you to share content, which will be automatically updated e. Widow - Last line of paragraph appearing on the first line of a column of text.
The best-known wiki in existence is Wikipedia, which burst onto the scene around as one of the first examples of mass collaborative information aggregation. Wire service - also the wire The Associated Press or other news service whose dispatches are transmitted electronically to the publication.
Wi-fi - Wireless internet or network connection. Wiki - An information site that can be edited and added to by readers. See Wikipedia - an online Wiki encyclopedia.
Wires - Stories or photographs sent electrically to your desktop. Here is a list of wire news services. WordPress — The most popular blogging software in use today, in large part because it is free and relatively powerful, yet easy to use. First released by Matt Mullenweg in , WordPress attracts contributions from a large community of programmers and designers who give it additional functionality and visual themes.
It has been criticized for security flaws. It gained further popularity with the emergence of Ajax as a way to send back data from web services, but has since lost ground to JSON, another data encoding format, which is seen as easier to work with. The British Poultry Council is looking for an information and communications officer to lead on information gathering and communications to support a small team of experts in London.
Looking for data on who owns a company, government spending or political influence? Use these resources to get started. A digital-only local news model launched in Denver, Colorado, could be rolled out to other ciites in the US. Check out these tips for producing and curating original journalism using the Stories feature of the two social platforms. Find a freelancer Map Advertise your freelance services Edit your listing. Ace - an on-call reporter. According to journalist Duncan Castles - speaking on football podcast The Transfer Window - this means that the Blues will need to sign a worthy successor.
Mr Hu, an Australian citizen, was given a ten-year prison term in after a trial that was closed to foreign journalists. Generally speaking, the biggest threats to journalists are thickening waists and getting laid off.
Whine not Stu Bykofsky," 5 July But the research part of it, similar to a journalist , is exciting. First Known Use of journalist Related Words announcer , broadcaster , newscaster , newspaperman , newswoman ; anchor , anchorman , anchorperson , anchorwoman ; columnist , commentator ; copyreader , editor ; muckraker , photojournalist , police reporter , sportswriter ;.
Other Job Terms factotum , milliner , ostler , scrivener , tinker , webster , wordsmith. Learn More about journalist Thesaurus: Seen and Heard What made you want to look up journalist? Need even more definitions? Get Word of the Day daily email! Ask the Editors Ghost Word The story of an imaginary word that managed to sneak past our editors and enter the dictionary. Realizing that they could expand their audience by abandoning politically polarized content, thus making more money off of advertising , American newspapers began to abandon their partisan politics in favor of less political reporting starting around Newspaper publishing became much more heavily professionalized in this era, and issues of writing quality and workroom discipline saw vast improvement.
The rampant discrimination and segregation against African-Americans led to the founding their own daily and weekly newspapers, especially in large cities.
While the first Black newspapers in America were established in the early 19th century,  in the 20th century these newspapers truly flourished in major cities, with publishers playing a major role in politics and business affairs. In the s in the United States, as newspapers dropped their blatant partisanship in search of new subscribers, political analyst Walter Lippmann and philosopher John Dewey debated the role of journalism in a democracy.
Lippmann's views prevailed for decades, helping to bolster the Progressives' confidence in decision-making by experts, with the general public standing by. Lippmann argued that high-powered journalism was wasted on ordinary citizens, but was of genuine value to an elite class of administrators and experts.
When issues were thoroughly vetted, then the best ideas would bubble to the surface. The danger of demagoguery and false news did not trouble Dewey. His faith in popular democracy has been implemented in various degrees, and is now known as " community journalism ".
Radio broadcasting increased in popularity starting in the s, becoming widespread in the s. While most radio programming was oriented toward music, sports, and entertainment, radio also broadcast speeches and occasional news programming. Radio reached the peak of its importance during World War II , as radio and newsreels were the two main sources of up-to-date information on the ongoing war. In the Soviet Union , radio would be heavily utilized by the state to broadcast political speeches by leadership.
These broadcasts would very rarely have any additional editorial content or analysis, setting them apart from modern news reporting.
Starting in the s, United States broadcast television channels would air tominute segments of news programming one or two times per evening. The era of live-TV news coverage would begin in the s with the assassination of John F.
Kennedy , broadcast and reported to live on a variety of nationally syndicated television channels. During the 60s and 70s, television channels would begin adding regular morning or midday news shows. Starting in with the establishment of CNN , news channels began providing hour news coverage, a format which persists through today.
The role and status of journalism, as well as mass media, has undergone changes over the last two decades, together with the advancement of digital technology and publication of news on the Internet. Notably, in the American media landscape, newsrooms have reduced their staff and coverage as traditional media channels, such as television, grappling with declining audiences.
For example, between and , CNN edited its story packages into nearly half of their original time length. The compactness in coverage has been linked to broad audience attrition. Using video camera-equipped smartphones, active citizens are now enabled to record footage of news events and upload them onto channels like YouTube which is often discovered and used by mainstream news media outlets.
News from a variety of online sources, like blogs and other social media, results in a wider choice of official and unofficial sources, rather than only traditional media organizations.
While various existing codes have some differences, most share common elements including the principles of — truthfulness , accuracy , objectivity , impartiality, fairness and public accountability — as these apply to the acquisition of newsworthy information and its subsequent dissemination to the public. In this view, the essence of journalism is to provide citizens with reliable information through the discipline of verification.
Some journalistic Codes of Ethics, notably the European ones,  also include a concern with discriminatory references in news based on race , religion , sexual orientation , and physical or mental disabilities. This includes points like respecting people's privacy and ensuring accuracy.
However, the Media Standards Trust has criticized the PCC, claiming it needs to be radically changed to secure the public trust of newspapers. This is in stark contrast to the media climate prior to the 20th century, where the media market was dominated by smaller newspapers and pamphleteers who usually had an overt and often radical agenda, with no presumption of balance or objectivity.
Because of the pressure on journalists to report news promptly and before their competitors, factual errors occur more frequently than in writing produced and edited under less time pressure. Thus a typical issue of a major daily newspaper may contain several corrections of articles published the previous day.
Perhaps the most famous journalistic mistake caused by time pressure was the Dewey Defeats Truman edition of the Chicago Daily Tribune , based on early election returns that failed to anticipate the actual result of the US presidential election. Such a code of conduct can, in the real world, be difficult to uphold consistently. Reporting and editing do not occur in a vacuum but always reflect the political context in which journalists, no less than other citizens, operate.
A news organization's budget inevitably reflects decision-making about what news to cover, for what audience, and in what depth. When budgets are cut, editors may sacrifice reporters in distant news bureaus, reduce the number of staff assigned to low-income areas, or wipe entire communities from the publication's zone of interest. Publishers, owners and other corporate executives, especially advertising sales executives, could try to use their powers over journalists to influence how news is reported and published.
For this reason, journalists traditionally relied on top management to create and maintain a "firewall" between the news and other departments in a news organization to prevent undue influence on the news department. Although some analysts [ who? According to this latter view, direct or implicit criticism of the government, political parties, corporations, unions, schools and colleges and even churches is both inevitable and desirable, and cannot be done well without clarity regarding fundamental political principles.
Hence, objectivity consists both in truthful, accurate reporting and well-reasoned and thoughtful commentary, based upon a firm commitment to a free society's principles of equality, liberty and government by consent. There are over codes of ethics in journalism that vary across various regions of the world. Most of the codes of ethics serve as a representation of the economic and political beliefs of the society where the code was written. Journalism does not have a universal code of conduct ; individuals are not legally obliged to follow a certain set of rules like a doctor or a lawyer does.
One suggestion centers on having three claims for credibility , justifiable consequence, and the claim of humanity. The second claim of justifiable consequences centers on weighing the benefits and detriments of a potentially harmful story and acting accordingly.
An example of justifiable consequence is exposing a professional with dubious practices; on the other hand, acting within justifiable consequence means writing compassionately about a family in mourning. The third claim is the claim of humanity which states that journalists are writing for a global population and therefore must serve everyone globally in their work, avoiding smaller loyalties to country, city, etc.
Governments have widely varying policies and practices towards journalists, which control what they can research and write, and what press organizations can publish. Some governments guarantee the freedom of the press; while other nations severely restrict what journalists can research or publish.
Journalists in many nations have some privileges that members of the general public do not, including better access to public events, crime scenes and press conferences, and to extended interviews with public officials, celebrities and others in the public eye. Journalists who elect to cover conflicts , whether wars between nations or insurgencies within nations, often give up any expectation of protection by government, if not giving up their rights to protection from the government.
Journalists who are captured or detained during a conflict are expected to be treated as civilians and to be released to their national government. Many governments around the world target journalists for intimidation, harassment, and violence because of the nature of their work. Journalists' interaction with sources sometimes involves confidentiality , an extension of freedom of the press giving journalists a legal protection to keep the identity of a confidential informant private even when demanded by police or prosecutors; withholding their sources can land journalists in contempt of court, or in jail.
In the United States, there is no right to protect sources in a federal court. However, federal courts will refuse to force journalists to reveal their sources, unless the information the court seeks is highly relevant to the case and there's no other way to get it.
State courts provide varying degrees of such protection. Journalists who refuse to testify even when ordered to can be found in contempt of court and fined or jailed. On the journalistic side of keeping sources confidential, there is also a risk to the journalist's credibility because there can be no actual confirmation of whether the information is valid. As such it is highly discouraged for journalists to have confidential sources. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Journalism and publishing terms list, print and online, collated by our community of journalists, bloggers, editors, sub-editors, designers, PRs and other communications professionals working worldwide in newspapers, magazines, radio and TV.
Broadcast journalism is full of many terms and phrases that professionals must learn. Check out NYFA's essential journalism terms glossary today!
A look at some of the terms commonly used in newsrooms across the country. These words need to become part of a journalist's daily vocabulary. Journalism, like any profession, has its own language and specialist words which practitioners need to know. The following glossary contains more than definitions of terms about journalism and the media - including new media - making it probably the biggest, most extensive journalism and media glossary available free online.. Spelling and punctuation of terms .
Broadcasting Terms close-up Shot of the face of the subject that dominated the frame so that little background is visible. cover shot A long shot usually cut in at the beginning of a sequence to establish place or location. cue A signal in a . Terms needed for journalism students. Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free.