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❶Isolation and characterization of a new virus Ebola virus causing acute hemorrhagic fever in Zaire.

Facts about Ebola

Marburg, the First Known Filovirus
Ebola Research Begins at NEIDL
The current epidemic

Rats were often found aboard ships and especially trade ships due to their abundance of food. These rats had the bacterium in their blood. Fleas that commonly were found on the rats were the way that the bacterium would jump from the rat to the human. The flea would suck blood from the rat and ingest the bacterium that would then grow in their digestive system.

When the flea moves from the rat to the human it would thus infect the human. The infection started with a egg size boil at the location that the flea would bite at. It would them move either to the blood stream causing death quickly or would move to the lungs giving the infected pneumonia like symptoms killing them within a week. In a modern setting any bacterium would be quickly identified and a antigen would be synthetically produced to help fight the infection.

As well we would be able to fight the bacterium using medicines that were not around during the period that the plague struck Europe and Asia. The world has also improved on sanitation since the time. Germany at the time practiced a level of sanitation that is easily not as advanced as almost any culture in the world today.

The first outbreak in Zaire had mutated from a virus that only infected monkeys to an airborne version that infected humans as well. Once in the blood stream, it targets an organ that produces chemicals that hold the bonds between cells in other organs that keep the organs shape and structure.

The virus then breaks apart bonds that hold cells together in organs. The infected organs in essence turn to mush and skin being an organ seeps body fluids from its pores and weak points like the eyes.

This would send body fluids containing the virus flying in all directions enabling it to move from person to person by infecting a large area around the convulsing victim.

The next stage is death. This would all happen in a matter of days. One of the reasons Ebola is so hard to contain is because it can survive in a dead body for weeks. Due to the fact that as humans we feel a need to take care of our deceased, infection can occur in people that are trying to burry the bodies of the infected or people living in the same place or area as an infected person.

The main reason that the Ebola virus was so unsuccessful at killing large numbers of people was because it killed so quickly that it would kill most of the village. The term is used to describe the stage of the Ebola infection when the infected goes into convolutions and their body temperature increases dramatically. This is the final stage before death. Like HIV it can mutate at an amazing rate making it impossible to create a vaccine to fight it.

Due to these reasons if it were to infect a large populace that lived reasonably close together, like India, the result would be devastating because the virus would not have enough room to kill itself out. The number of people that have died as a result of the bubonic plague is in the millions. In Europe alone, it has claimed millions of lives. It is believed that the population of Europe in was 83 million and by the population was down to 60 million.

Most of these deaths were caused by the plague. As civilization advanced, and people became more aware of being sanitary, the infection rate was much lower till it one day nearly disappeared. Outbreaks still occurred, but were less devastating and less frequent. The last occurrence of the black plague being transmitted from rats to humans was in in Los Angeles killing 31 of the 32 infected. The Japanese in W. II used it as a biological weapon against the Chinese but proved to be an unsuccessful weapon , possibly due to the Chinese having a more advanced hygiene system then they had when the plague was more prevalent in the past.

The first outbreak of Ebola was in Zaire. After killing itself out, it re-emerged in Sudan in It is hard to point a finger at what these outbreaks were originally caused by or who their original carriers were.

Monkeys are a known carrier due to the Reston outbreak that killed all of the monkeys in the Quarantine laboratory, but many other animals such as birds and lizards are known to carry the disease as well. This makes it almost impossible to stop the original transmission of the virus from animal to human due to the wide variety of possible carriers and their wide spread abundance around the south western part of the world.

The major reason that the plague would have trouble becoming a major problem in a modern setting is the fact that it is a bacterium. Bacteria responds to antibiotics and the human immune system has an easy time identifying it as infectious due to their physical size, and can more easily produce antigens to fight the bacteria. Due to the fact that a bacterium is living, acting and responding to stimulus in the way all living things do, it can be more easily targeted my modern medicine.

Bacteria tend to die at lower levels of stimulus extremity. Bacteria as well take a lot longer time evolve then virus although they will evolve with time modern medical science can keep up with it.

The bubonic plague bacteria has been know mutate into different strains to but has not undergone any major mutations that would change it enough to stop responding to current medical treatments that would be used against it. Bacteria are too responsive to stimulus, and would not be able evolve faster then modern science thus in a modern setting it would not be able to become a major epidemic.

The reason that Ebola would be able to become a major problem in a modern environment is that it is a virus, a unique virus that uses speed and aggression to kill its victims. Being a virus it does not take on all of the characteristics of living beings. They do not have a response to stimuli nor do they reproduce by themselves. Viruses do not respond to any antibiotics thus taking one more weapon modern science could use against it. For your next research paper, you can focus your topic on the Ebola virus itself or health in third world countries.

In previous outbreaks of Ebola, about 90 percent of those infected die. There is no vaccine or cure for the highly infectious disease. This most recent outbreak of the Ebola virus is believed to have originated in late or early in Guinea in West Africa. After a period when it looked like the virus was slowing down, it gained momentum again and even spread to the capital of Liberia for the first time.

Because Ebola often touches remote areas and the first cases sometimes go unrecognized, it is likely that there are deaths that go uncounted during outbreaks. This region of West Africa, particularly the countries of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone where the Ebola virus has hit hardest, has a long history of adhering to their own traditional medicine and a wariness of outside medical assistance.

The fear of health officials is most likely only adding to the severity of the epidemic. Reports indicate that many of the sick are being hidden and buried without any protection to prevent further spread of the disease. And not even the doctors themselves are immune or safe. The lead doctor fighting Ebola in Sierra Leone has died of the disease, and two other American doctors working in Liberia have tested positive for the disease.

Want to learn more about third world health? Check out Questia —particularly the section on Ebola. Is it only a matter of time before a deadly virus like Ebola, or Ebola itself, spreads around the world?

Ebola, the Second Known Filovirus

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John Connor and Emily Speranza detected a response in interferon-stimulated genes four days before Ebola symptoms emerged. They published their findings in Science Translational Medicine.

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Ebola research papers examine the symptoms and origin of the destructive disease. Ebola research papers discuss the emergence of this disease in the world today. Paper Masters has researchers that write on Ebola and other medical health diseases. Specifically, the following objectives are pursued: To undertake Ebola outbreak appraisal under Africa and other countries in the World, and their trends and structural growth in Nigeria, West Africa and Africa countries; To examine the determinants of Ebola outbreak within the demographic context of Africa; To assess the in-depth impact of Ebola outbreak and its adverse effect on the demography of Africa.

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Jan 20,  · Research Paper on Ebola Virus During the Dark Ages a plague swept through Asia and Europe killing millions of people, at the time it was unstoppable with a unique set of hosts. The plague, later named The Black Death* became one of the greatest catastrophes humanity has ever witnessed. Research Papers on the Ebola Virus Outbreak Ebola Virus Outbreak research papers examine the recent outbreak of the Ebola virus in West Africa and the first outbreak in the United States. Research papers on the Ebola virus outbreak look at where the virus began and the countries that contain the virus.