During the 6 week break from school, parents will be making preparations for their children to return to school, and new smart school clothing will be needed.
If the brand offers a range of products and services, it needs to be determined which of these are most popular and how regularly customers purchase these. You can then use this information to make strategic decisions about marketing the whole product range or just focusing on particular products at certain times.
In the digital age, there are an increasing number of customers purchasing online through company websites and 3 rd party seller websites, via mobile apps or even through social media. But there are also a number of consumers who will still prefer to make purchases via more traditional methods such as in store or over the phone.
To make the right marketing choices, you need to understand where your customers prefer to purchase from. Understanding their reasons for their current preferred purchase method could also be the key to influencing them to change the way they buy, for example switching from the website to the mobile app, or from in store to online. It is important that you understand where your customers look to for information do they use search engines?
Look to classified advertisements? Like consumer while buying a floor tiles buy them quickly as there are few differences between brands. The consumer buys the product quickly. You can get our e books also. Please see the page:. Hey excellent job works as an ready rekkoner ideal for the student and professional marketer.
Keep the good work going. Thanks a bunch for the work! So pricised and clear to understand. Hope to get more details on how variety seeker can get to be loyal. Your email address will not be published. Skip to content Wants are unlimited and the resources to satisfy these wants are limited.
One man sees Pledge, an outstanding furniture polish, while another sees a can of spray no different from any other furniture polish. One woman sees a luxurious Gucci purse, and the other sees an overpriced bag to hold keys and makeup Chartrand, Learning refers to the process by which consumers change their behavior after they gain information or experience. People with limited experience about a product or brand generally seek out more information than people who have used a product before.
Companies try to get consumers to learn about their products in different ways. Car dealerships offer test drives. Other companies give consumers free samples. Have you ever eaten the food samples in a grocery store? While sampling is an expensive strategy, it gets consumers to try the product and many customers buy it, especially right after trying in the store.
Another kind of learning is operant or instrumental conditioning , which is what occurs when researchers are able to get a mouse to run through a maze for a piece of cheese or a dog to salivate just by ringing a bell. In other words, learning occurs through repetitive behavior that has positive or negative consequences.
Companies engage in operant conditioning by rewarding consumers, which cause consumers to want to repeat their purchasing behaviors. Another learning process called classical conditioning occurs by associating a conditioned stimulus CS with an unconditioned stimulus US to get a particular response. The more frequently the CS is linked with the US, the faster learning occurs and this is what advertisers and businesses try to do.
Think about a meal at a restaurant where the food was really good and you went with someone special. You like the person and want to go out again. It could be that classical conditioning occurred. That is, the food produced a good feeling and you may associate the person with the food, thus producing a good feeling about the person.
Companies want people to have positive feelings about their offerings. A few years ago, KFC began running ads to the effect that fried chicken was healthy—until the U. Federal Trade Commission told the company to stop. Situational factors, personal factors, and psychological factors influence what you buy, but only on a temporary basis. Societal factors are a bit different. They are more outward and have broad influences on your beliefs and the way you do things. They depend on the world around you and how it works.
Culture refers to the shared beliefs, customs, behaviors, and attitudes that characterize a society. Your culture prescribes the way in which you should live and has a huge effect on the things you purchase. For example, in Beirut, Lebanon, women can often be seen wearing miniskirts. In Afghanistan women generally wear burqas , which cover them completely from head to toe. Interestingly, abayas have become big business in recent years. They come in many styles, cuts, and fabrics and some are encrusted with jewels and cost thousands of dollars.
To read about the fashions women in Muslim countries wear, check out the following article: Even cultures that share many of the same values as the United States can be quite different. Following the meltdown of the financial markets in , countries around the world were pressed by the United States to engage in deficit spending to stimulate the worldwide economy. The plan was a hard sell both to German politicians and to the German people in general.
Credit card companies such as Visa, American Express, and MasterCard must understand cultural perceptions about credit.
A subculture is a group of people within a culture who are different from the dominant culture but have something in common with one another such as common interests, vocations or jobs, religions, ethnic backgrounds, and geographic locations.
The fastest-growing subculture in the United States consists of people of Hispanic origin, followed by Asian Americans, and African Americans. The purchasing power of U. Home Depot has launched a Spanish version of its Web site. Walmart is in the process of converting some of its Neighborhood Markets into stores designed to appeal to Hispanics. Marketing products based on the ethnicity of consumers is useful but may become harder to do in the future because the boundaries between ethnic groups are blurring.
Otherkins are primarily Internet users who believe they are reincarnations of mythological or legendary creatures—angels, demons, vampires—you name it. To read more about the Otherkins and seven other bizarre subcultures, visit http: You have probably heard of the hip-hop subculture, people who in engage in extreme types of sports such as helicopter skiing or people who play the fantasy game Dungeons and Dragons.
A social class is a group of people who have the same social, economic, or educational status in society 5. While income helps define social class, the primary variable determining social class is occupation. To some degree, consumers in the same social class exhibit similar purchasing behavior. In many countries, people are expected to marry within their own social class. When asked, people tend to say they are middle class, which is not always correct. Keep in mind that the U. The rise of the middle class in India and China is creating opportunities for many companies to successfully sustain their products.
In a recession when luxury buyers are harder to come by, the makers of upscale brands may want their customer bases to be as large as possible. However, the company later worried that its reputation was being tarnished by the line. Luxury brands therefore try to keep the supply of their products in check so their prices remain high.
The whiskey brand Johnnie Walker has managed to expand its market share without cheapening the brand by producing a few lower-priced versions of the whiskey and putting them in bottles with different labels.
Every blue-label bottle has a serial number and is sold in a silk-lined box, accompanied by a certificate of authenticity 7. Reference groups are groups social groups, work groups, family, or close friends a consumer identifies with and may want to join. If you have ever dreamed of being a professional player of basketball or another sport, you have an aspirational reference group.
There may also be dissociative groups or groups where a consumer does not want to be associated. Opinion leaders are people with expertise in certain areas.
Consumers respect these people and often ask their opinions before they buy goods and services. An information technology IT specialist with a great deal of knowledge about computer brands is an example. The IT specialist is probably a person who has the latest and greatest tech products, and his opinion of them is likely to carry more weight with you than any sort of advertisement. Network analysis using special software is one way of doing so. Like it or not, you are more like your parents than you think, at least in terms of your consumption patterns.
Companies are interested in which family members have the most influence over certain purchases. Children have a great deal of influence over many household purchases.
For example, in nearly half 47 percent of nine- to seventeen-year-olds were asked by parents to go online to find out about products or services, compared to 37 percent in IKEA used this knowledge to design their showrooms. Marketing to children has come under increasing scrutiny. Some critics accuse companies of deliberately manipulating children to nag their parents for certain products.
For example, even though tickets for Hannah Montana concerts ranged from hundreds to thousands of dollars, the concerts often still sold out. Hirschman and Morris B. Association for Consumer Research, , 53— Routledge, , — Frankenberger, and Rajesh V. The Uncooling of America New York: One for You, One for Me?
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Learning Objectives Describe the personal and psychological factors that may influence what consumers buy and when they buy it. Explain how looking at lifestyle information helps firms understand what consumers want to purchase.
Video Clip Thin Mints, Anyone? Time The time of day, time of year, and how much time consumers feel like they have to shop affect what they buy. Reason for the Purchase The reason you are shopping also affects the amount of time you will spend shopping.
Mood Have you ever felt like going on a shopping spree? Gender, Age, and Stage of Life While demographic variables such as income, education, and marital status are important, we will look at gender, age, and stage of life and how they influence purchase decisions. Psychological Factors Motivation Motivation is the inward drive we have to get what we need. Perception Perception is how you interpret the world around you and make sense of it in your brain.
Learning Learning refers to the process by which consumers change their behavior after they gain information or experience. Societal Factors Situational factors, personal factors, and psychological factors influence what you buy, but only on a temporary basis. Culture Culture refers to the shared beliefs, customs, behaviors, and attitudes that characterize a society.
Subcultures A subculture is a group of people within a culture who are different from the dominant culture but have something in common with one another such as common interests, vocations or jobs, religions, ethnic backgrounds, and geographic locations.
Social Class A social class is a group of people who have the same social, economic, or educational status in society 5. Reference Groups and Opinion Leaders Reference groups are groups social groups, work groups, family, or close friends a consumer identifies with and may want to join. Key Takeaway Situational influences are temporary conditions that affect how buyers behave. Companies try to make the physical factors in which consumers shop as favorable as possible.
Your personality describes your disposition as other people see it.
Consumer buying behavior is the sum total of a consumer's attitudes, preferences, intentions, and decisions regarding the consumer's behavior in the marketplace when purchasing a product or.
Buying Behavior is the decision processes and acts of people involved in buying and using products. Need to understand: why consumers make the purchases that they make? what factors influence consumer purchases? the changing factors in our society. Consumer Buying Behavior refers to the buying behavior of the ultimate consumer.
Explain how culture, subcultures, social classes, families, and reference groups affect consumers’ buying behavior. You’ve been a consumer with purchasing power for much longer than you probably realize—since the first . Here are five factors that can affect your customers’ buying behaviour: Your Business. When customers are making buying decisions they look at what your business offers as well as your competitors. If they have a real problem increasingly they will look at businesses that are specialists.
In a layman’s language consumer behaviour deals with the buying behaviour of individuals. The main catalyst which triggers the buying decision of an individual is need for a particular product/service. Consumer behavior is the study of how people make decisions about what they buy, want, need, or act in regards to a product, service, or company. It is critical to understand consumer behavior to.