There is no right answer here, and, as we shall see in the rest of this presentation, there may be good reasons for adopting a variety of methods, which encompass both quantitative and qualitative approaches 20 Types of Research There are five main types of research that you might consider Experimental Research Survey Research Evaluative Research Observational Research Developmental Research All five of these types can incorporate both quantitative and qualitative approaches 21 Experimental Research This is normally quantitative, but can take two forms An attempt to produce a piece of hardware, software or a combination of both, which is at the cutting edge of a discipline.
An attempt to investigate and document the performance of a particular piece technology in specific circumstances. This might involve Creating hardware or software applications Devising detailed tests and evaluation procedures Carrying out rigorous testing Evaluating performance or usability 22 Survey Research This research can be qualitative or quantitative in the widest sense, you are interviewing people.
This might involve An unstructured interview A semi-structured interview An structured interview based on questionnaire face to face, or by telephone An administered questionnaire A Postal Questionnaire 23 Evaluative Research This is primarily qualitative. Here you are trying to assess whether something is of value, whether it meets its specifications, or whether it is fit-for-purpose. This might involve Developing a list of criteria on which to make judgements Finding a suitable set of evaluators Asking the evaluators to examine the object against each of the criteria to judge to what extent it conforms to expectations, Weighing the positives and the negatives, coming to overall conclusions Matching these judgments against similar judgements made elsewhere in the literature or in real life.
This might involve Participating in a task or situation Making field notes of experiences Asking another person to keep a log or diary of their experiences Creating and using an Observation Schedule Making a check-list of occurrences of particular events or items. This might involve Discussing with or surveying possible users Creation of a novel algorithm, application or other piece of software for a particular situation or environment Making detailed notes of your experiences as a developer.
Discussing with other developers their experiences and their solutions to particular problems. Testing the Algorithm or Software.
This might involve using a code-checker, or a formal testing procedure. Evaluating the software with a group of potential users. Action Research is normally conducted in an educational or political context. Action is taken, monitored, evaluated and then modified for the next cycle. Ethnographic Research consists of an in-depth study of a cultural phenomenon, in order to generate new theory.
Case Study Research selects a whole range of research methods in scrutinising one particular context or situation. Selecting Appropriate Research Methods The next few slides discuss how you might go about selecting your research methods from those available 31 Selecting Your Methodology Your research methodology consists of Research Methods experiment, survey etc.
Research Instruments questionnaire, tests etc. Analytical Tools statistics, inductive or deductive methods When selecting the methodology, you need to be aware of The Research Questions you are trying to answer The Population you are trying to generalise to. Undertake Literature Review What methods have been used? Select Research Questions What research instruments have been devised?
Devise Methodology Research Instruments How will the methods instruments be applied? Apply Methods Instruments What Statistical tests can be carried out? Test Hypotheses Draw Conclusions 33 Appropriate methodology Do your Research Questions involve impressions, attitudes, opinions, beliefs or knowledge held by people?
If so, then survey research is appropriate Do your Research Questions involve behaviour, actions, reactions to events, circumstances or objects? If so, then observational research is appropriate 34 Appropriate methodology Do your Research Questions involve the reliability or robustness of hardware, software, systems or infrastructure? If so, then an evaluative study is appropriate Do your Research Questions involve the testing of hardware or software at the technical level, speed, accuracy, security etc?
If so, then experimentation is appropriate 35 A Mix of Methods It may be that your research questions overlap some of these categories, or different questions address more than category.
If so, you should consider a mix of methods, that ensure that you cover all eventualities. This may bring added benefits. Robustness of Methods As well as ensuring that your questions are well-focussed, and your methods relevant and appropriate, you need to ensure that your methods are also Reliable and Valid 38 Reliability Validity Research is Reliable if different methods, researchers and sample groups would have produced the same results.
Research is Valid if the results produced by the research are accurate portrayals of the situation, explanations are effective, and predictions from the research are actually borne out by observation. Reliability can be improved if data collection methods are made more precise, we have controlled experimentation, and we can produce statistical summaries. Using detailed, highly structured research instruments can lead to distortions, by forcing observations into categories when they do not fit.
Data summaries and averaging can also lead to distortions, and meaningless generalities. Graphical representations and percentages can be highly selective and produce biased findings. Validity can be improved by working directly with individuals or objects, focusing on specific cases, making detailed observations, conducting face to face interviews, taking detailed measurements in specific circumstances etc.
Validity Valid, but not reliable 42 Reliability v. Validity Reliable, but not Valid 43 Methodological Trade-Off If you improve validity, you will almost certainly reduce reliability.
If you improve reliability it will be at the cost of reducing your validity. The trade-off is to balance the two so that the benefits of using particular methods outweigh the losses incurred. The purpose here is to use two distinct methodologies, independent of one another to confirm that the effects which we are observing are real, and not artefacts of the research process. If you are using highly structured, statistical or measurement-based research, you supplement this with detailed observations or face to face interviewing.
If your research is mainly based on individuals or on single items, you ensure that at least part of it has some statistical summaries, structured observations or questionnaires.
Structuring Your Methodology This section looks in detail at the techniques that you might employ in the Research Activity itself. This might be a measuring procedure, a set of evaluation criteria, an interview procedure or questionnaire, or an observational method or schedule. It is unlikely that you will find exactly what you need you will be forced to adapt or amend it. This means that you will need to conduct a Pilot Study to test whether the new instrument is fit-for-purpose.
The size of the pilot study will depend on how inventive you needed to be. If your procedures are almost entirely of your own devising, then you will need a fairly extensive pilot study to check them. If you have lifted methods from the literature, than your pilot can be quite small. With test procedures, you need to check that you can actually do what you have said that you are going to do.
With evaluation criteria, you need to use these in a limited context, to see that they are workable and effective.
The Pilot Study stage will be part of your research you will need to write this up, reporting on how your methods were adapted and improved as a result. Note that you do not need to be doing pure experimental research to adopt these methods. The net result is that you are comparing one thing, or one group with another thing or group. We have different treatments which we apply to different groups We control the groups for different factors 60 Experimental Designs Experiments normally involve independent and dependent variables Independent variables are factors that can be controlled for, like temperature, file sizes, age, gender etc.
Dependent variables are those factors which will change as a result of altering the independent variables. For example, download times will increase as a result of increasing file sizes.
It allows you to split your sample into two distinct parts A B You give the same test to the two groups before you start You treat one of the groups You apply the same test afterwards. We can use the test measurements on the control group as a benchmark for any changes we make to the treatment group A 63 Example 1 Server Testing Suppose we wish to check whether a firewall is effective in blocking external attacks.
Set up System A System B on two different servers, running near-equivalent internal external programs. Devise a test which includes a full range of possible attacks apply to both A B. Take series of measurements observations. Incorporate firewall into System A Reapply test to both systems, which are again running near-equivalent programs.
Set up Website A Website B with near-equivalent structure, but different content. Devise a procedure which asks two equivalent sets of users to make explorations of the websites apply to both A B. Make a series of observations Incorporate Agents into Website A Re-apply procedure, asking two more equivalent sets of users to make the same explorations of both Websites. Set up group A group B with near-equivalent members.
The two groups to undertake a short programme of learning on-line, which incorporates a short evaluation and a knowledge test. Give Training to Group A The two groups to undertake a further short programme of learning on-line, again incorporating a short evaluation and knowledge test. For two factors, we would need 4 groups Group A Control no treatment Group B Factor 1 treatment only Group C Factor 2 Treatment only Group D Factors 1 2 Treatments Clearly, this is going to increase the complexity and size of the research, but it has the added benefit of producing verifiable results in cases where two factors interact to produce interesting effects.
We simply apply the treatment to one group, and apply the test to both groups. Matched Pairs Design The individuals we use in the test groups subjects are matched for characteristics which are likely to affect the outcome gender, age, level of education, ethnicity etc.
We will also need to ensure that any measurements taken of the dependent variables are as accurate as possible. We also need to ensure that our methodology is clear and replicable. If a sample is being used, then the sample whether time, events, people or objects should be as representative of the background population as possible, and we should make detailed observations of how the events unfold as well as the final measurements.
You may need to use such techniques if evaluation is implicit in your research questions 72 Evaluative Research Evaluative Research covers those cases where you are attempting to compare whether one procedure or object is better or more effective than another procedure or object, or to determine whether a particular procedure or object is fit-for-purpose.
Evaluation normally needs to be done against a set of criteria, which have been established as valid and reliable in this context. You would normally produce an evaluation form to be completed by respondents. This will provide very useful information on how easy the software is to use for different types of user, what issues arise in day-to-day use of the software, and whether or not the users feel that the software is intuitive, user-friendly and well-designed.
It is possible to use a qualitative form of user evaluation, where a user is asked to use a piece of software, and then interviewed about experiences this should be used with care, as while the information this provides is very useful, it can only be indicative.
Individual users may not have the experience, insight or knowledge to provide detailed information on every aspect of a piece of software. One of the main issues in using this method, is to establish the credibility of the experts, and the relevance of their experience to the software to be evaluated.
Expert Judges may also be used qualitatively, by asking them to evaluate a piece of software according to whatever criteria they feel to be appropriate this in general is far more valid than asking individual users to comment. The method involves a small set of evaluators examining the interface and judging its compliance with recognized usability principles the "heuristics". The evaluation is performed initially by individual evaluators working alone.
Only after all evaluations have been completed are the evaluators allowed to communicate and have their findings aggregated. The focus of this set of modules is qualitative research. However, the following introductory video, A Brief Introduction to Research Design, offers a brief explanation of each method and a comparison.
Quantitative methods are used to examine the relationship between variables with the primary goal being to analyze and represent that relationship mathematically through statistical analysis. This is the type of research approach most commonly used in scientific research problems. Following is a list of characteristics and advantages of using quantitative methods: There are a variety of quantitative methods and sampling techniques that will be discussed in detail in the other modules in this unit.
However, following are examples of research questions where quantitative methods may be appropriately applied: The collection of numerical data through quantitative research methods lends itself well to large variety of research questions. The following modules in this series will explore when to choose quantitative methods, how to write a good research question, types of quantitative methods, data analysis, ethics and many other topics that will lead to better understanding of quantitative research.
Introduction to Quantitative Research — The following PDF is an article that provides an introduction to quantitative research. Overview of Quantitative Research — Following is a narrated PowerPoint presentation that provides an excellent overview of quantitative research and the issues that will be discussed in these Research Ready modules.
A Basic Introduction — Following is a link to a Slideshare presentation that offers and overview to quantitative research and data.
Strengths and Weaknesses of Quantitative Research — This link provides lists of the strengths and weaknesses of quantitative research. Research Methods — This resource describes the basic characteristics of quantitative research and gives an overview of methodologies, as well as a comparison with qualitative research. Qualitative and Quantitative Research — The link below contains a chart that describes the characteristics of quantitative research and compares them the characteristics of qualitative research.
This pin will expire , on Change. For assistance call IND projectguru. More Industrial overview of India. Importance of research approach in a research By Priya Chetty on October 12, Research approach is essentially divided into two categories: Components of Research Approach. Priya Chetty Partner at Project Guru. Priya Chetty writes frequently about advertising, media, marketing and finance. She emphasizes more on refined content for Project Guru's various paid services. She has also reviewed about various insights of the social insider by writing articles about what social media means for the media and marketing industries.
Latest posts by Priya Chetty see all Demographic data representation in Nvivo - September 6, Data analysis by generating Nvivo coding query - September 5, Creating and managing Nvivo memo - September 5, Hire us for research analysis. It can be exploratory or descriptive and the research methods are not mutually exclusive. However, over the period of research the researcher may identify more than one purpose […] Limitations and weakness of quantitative research methods Quantitative research main purpose is the quantification of the data.
It allows generalisations of the results by measuring the views and responses of the sample population. Every research methodology consists two broad phases namely planning and execution Younus However, qualitative research also have limitations.
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Research Approach: Concept Plans and the procedure for research that span the steps from broad assumptions to detailed methods of data collection, analysis, and interpretation. The overall decision involves which approach should be used to study a .
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Recognising Research: Approaches & Designs Introduction to Study Skills & Research Methods (HL) Research Continuum Research Design Continuum Analytical Research Descriptive Research Correlational Evidence PowerPoint Presentation PowerPoint Presentation Experimental Research Experimental Research Experimental Research . Research downlwhopkd.cf 1. Dr. Shamanthakamani Narendran M.D. (Pead), Ph.D. (Yoga Science) R E S E A R C H M E T H O D S methods and procedures adopted in terminology work to carry out terminology research. Research methods table - haverstockmedia. Kajian etnografi wmkfirdaus.
research methods in cognitive psychology norming studies - free association - imageability ratings - age of acquisition ratings Research Methods Knowledge Base -. facilitation july 10 th, by federica vegas. Quantitative Research Approaches Dr Sadasivam Karuppannan * * * Quantitative approach The quantitative approach views phenomena as being amenable to objective study i.e. able to be measured.