Thus, here you apply the specified methods. You describe how the research went and you analyze the results. In the conclusion , you finally provide an answer corresponding to your problem statement. Often, the results are open to multiple interpretations. In the discussion section, you provide the various possible interpretations and views, and you give suggestions for follow-up research.
The recommendations for follow-up research are always described in the dissertation discussion section. However, many students who are doing a final internship at a company must also write an advisory plan. In this advisory plan , they make recommendations to the company in response to the conclusions of their study. As with the preface, the afterword is often used to thank people. Thus, when you have already written a preface, an afterword is often unnecessary. Another function of the afterword is reflection.
That is why the afterword is also referred to as evaluation or reflection. When you have written the dissertation with another person, you can use the afterword to indicate how the collaboration went and what you have learned.
Many students are also required to write a reflection report. The reflection report is often written separately and not added to the dissertation. You list all sources that you have used in the reference list. Your educational program will often specify which style you must use for the acknowledgement of sources. Your dissertation itself contains only core issues.
Many documents that you have used but which do not actually need to be in your dissertation are added as appendices. If documents contribute to your research, then you must include them in the appendix so that others can check how your research has been conducted and on what it is based. The structure described above is very handy while writing your dissertation, but you may deviate from this format.
How other students have structured their theses can be seen in the dissertation examples. Have a thesis expert improve your writing. Check your thesis for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Generate your APA citations for free!
Home Knowledge Base Dissertation. How to structure a dissertation How do you start when you have to write a dissertation or a thesis?
Is this article helpful? Your dissertation without language mistakes and blunders? Get help from a professional Scribbr editor. Acknowledgements of a dissertation Afterword of a dissertation An appendix to a dissertation Conceptual framework Conceptual framework: Control variables Conceptual framework: Mediator variables Conceptual framework: Moderator variables Dissertation acknowledgements example Example dissertation afterword Example of a dissertation abstract Example of a dissertation preface Example of a research proposal structure Figure and table lists in your dissertation Glossary of a dissertation How to conduct a dissertation literature review How to create a title page for your dissertation How to perform desk research How to write a dissertation introduction How to write a dissertation proposal?
Could another researcher approximately replicate the key algorithms of any computer software? Citations in this section should be limited to data sources and references of where to find more complete descriptions of procedures.
Do not include descriptions of results. Results The results are actual statements of observations, including statistics, tables and graphs. Indicate information on range of variation. Mention negative results as well as positive. Do not interpret results - save that for the discussion. Lay out the case as for a jury. Present sufficient details so that others can draw their own inferences and construct their own explanations.
Break up your results into logical segments by using subheadings Key results should be stated in clear sentences at the beginning of paragraphs.
Describe the nature of the findings; do not just tell the reader whether or not they are significant. Writing for an Audience Who is your audience? Researchers working in analogous field areas elsewhere in the world i. Researchers working in your field area, but with different techniques. Researchers working on the same interval of geologic time elsewhere in the world.
All other researchers using the same technique you have used. If your study encompasses an active process, researchers working on the same process in the ancient record. Conversely, if your study is based on the rock record, people studying modem analogs. People writing a synthesis paper on important new developments in your field. People applying earth science to societal problems i.
Potential reviewers of your manuscript or your thesis committee. Planning Ahead for Your Thesis. Writing for an Audience. Writing for an International Audience. Abstract A good abstract explains in one line why the paper is important. It then goes on to give a summary of your major results, preferably couched in numbers with error limits.
The final sentences explain the major implications of your work. A good abstract is concise, readable, and quantitative. Absrtracts generally do not have citations. Information in title should not be repeated. Use numbers where appropriate. Answers to these questions should be found in the abstract: What did you do? Why did you do it? What question were you trying to answer? How did you do it? What did you learn? Why does it matter? Point out at least one significant implication. Table of Contents list all headings and subheadings with page numbers indent subheadings it will look something like this: How do you do this?
Physical separation into different sections or paragraphs. Don't overlay interpretation on top of data in figures. Careful use of phrases such as "We infer that ". Don't worry if "results" seem short. Easier for your reader to absorb, frequent shifts of mental mode not required. Ensures that your work will endure in spite of shifting paradigms. Discussion Start with a few sentences that summarize the most important results.
The discussion section should be a brief essay in itself, answering the following questions and caveats: What are the major patterns in the observations? Refer to spatial and temporal variations. What are the relationships, trends and generalizations among the results? What are the exceptions to these patterns or generalizations? What are the likely causes mechanisms underlying these patterns resulting predictions? Is there agreement or disagreement with previous work?
Interpret results in terms of background laid out in the introduction - what is the relationship of the present results to the original question? What is the implication of the present results for other unanswered questions in earth sciences, ecology, environmental policy, etc?
There are usually several possible explanations for results. Be careful to consider all of these rather than simply pushing your favorite one. If you can eliminate all but one, that is great, but often that is not possible with the data in hand. In that case you should give even treatment to the remaining possibilities, and try to indicate ways in which future work may lead to their discrimination.
A special case of the above. Avoid jumping a currently fashionable point of view unless your results really do strongly support them. What are the things we now know or understand that we didn't know or understand before the present work? Include the evidence or line of reasoning supporting each interpretation. What is the significance of the present results: This section should be rich in references to similar work and background needed to interpret results.
Is there material that does not contribute to one of the elements listed above? If so, this may be material that you will want to consider deleting or moving. Break up the section into logical segments by using subheads. Conclusions What is the strongest and most important statement that you can make from your observations? If you met the reader at a meeting six months from now, what do you want them to remember about your paper?
Refer back to problem posed, and describe the conclusions that you reached from carrying out this investigation, summarize new observations, new interpretations, and new insights that have resulted from the present work.
Include the broader implications of your results. Do not repeat word for word the abstract, introduction or discussion. Recommendations Include when appropriate most of the time Remedial action to solve the problem. Further research to fill in gaps in our understanding. Directions for future investigations on this or related topics. Simpson and Hays cite more than double-author references by the surname of the first author followed by et al. Pfirman, Simpson and Hays would be: Nature , , National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commonly asked questions about ozone.
Harper Collins Publishers, New York, pp. Child Review of ciliary structure and function. Biochemistry and Physiology of Protozoa , Vol. Hutner, editor , Academic Press, New York, Bonani A high altitude continental paleotemperature record derived from noble gases dissolved in groundwater from the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Tables where more than pages. Calculations where more than pages. You may include a key article as appendix. If you consulted a large number of references but did not cite all of them, you might want to include a list of additional resource material, etc.
List of equipment used for an experiment or details of complicated procedures. Figures and tables, including captions, should be embedded in the text and not in an appendix, unless they are more than pages and are not critical to your argument. Order of Writing Your thesis is not written in the same order as it is presented in. The following gives you one idea how to proceed.
Here is another approach. Write up a preliminary version of the background section first. This will serve as the basis for the introduction in your final paper. As you collect data, write up the methods section. It is much easier to do this right after you have collected the data. Be sure to include a description of the research equipment and relevant calibration plots. When you have some data, start making plots and tables of the data.
These will help you to visualize the data and to see gaps in your data collection. If time permits, you should go back and fill in the gaps. You are finished when you have a set of plots that show a definite trend or lack of a trend. Be sure to make adequate statistical tests of your results. Once you have a complete set of plots and statistical tests, arrange the plots and tables in a logical order.
Write figure captions for the plots and tables. As much as possible, the captions should stand alone in explaining the plots and tables. Many scientists read only the abstract, figures, figure captions, tables, table captions, and conclusions of a paper. Be sure that your figures, tables and captions are well labeled and well documented. Once your plots and tables are complete, write the results section. Writing this section requires extreme discipline.
You must describe your results, but you must NOT interpret them. If good ideas occur to you at this time, save them at the bottom of the page for the discussion section. Be factual and orderly in this section, but try not to be too dry. Once you have written the results section, you can move on to the discussion section. This is usually fun to write, because now you can talk about your ideas about the data.
Thesis Structure. This page outlines the stages of an honours thesis and provides links to other pages that will give you more information and some examples from past theses. states aim of your research and how it fits into the gap; can include hypotheses; can include an outline of the following chapters.
I. Thesis structure Title Page Title (including subtitle), author, institution, department, date of delivery, research mentor(s) and advisor, their instututions and email adresses.
The argument is your answer to your research question/s, and the structure of your thesis should support the argument. A thesis argument map can help you to stay on track and can save you a lot of time writing. As long as you have planned a good structure for the parts of a research paper, both approaches are acceptable and it is a matter of preference. A good introduction generally consists of three distinct parts: You should first give a .
How to structure a dissertation. How do you start when you have to write a dissertation or a thesis? You can save yourself some headaches by first typing each element of the structure of your dissertation in Microsoft Word/5(). A discussion of your research question or thesis statement; A schematic outline of the remainder of your thesis; The outline gives an overview of the main points of your thesis. It clarifies the structure of your thesis and helps you find the correct focus for your work. The outline can also be used in supervision sessions, especially in.