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How to Write Numbers Under APA Guidelines

General Format

❶Listing your keywords will help researchers find your work in databases. In addition to a spell check, proof and edit carefully with your own eye, since MS Word will not detect certain woods this should have been words that are spelled correctly but used in the wrong context.

January 13, 2011

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Use proper citation format. When using direct quotations of sources include in the citation the author's last name no need to include first name , year, and page number APA, 6th ed. For direct quotations of online sources without a page number, insert the paragraph number see APA, 6th ed. Van Dyke, , pp. When paraphrasing material no direct quotes you are encouraged to but not required to include a page or paragraph number in the citation APA manual, p. Sample without a page or paragraph citation: Also be familiar with rules governing self-plagiarism, or publishing your "own previously published work as new scholarship" APA 6th ed.

Click here for guidance from APA 6th ed. For quotations of 40 or more words, use block quote format. Double space the entire quotation. Before quoting, reprinting, or adapting copyrighted work like a figure, table, or image, you must obtain written permission from the copyright holder and append a footnote to this material acknowledging the copyright holder's permission see APA, 6th ed.

Periods and commas should usually appear inside the end quote marks. See examples in APA, 6th ed. Pay careful attention to rules that guide capitalization of laws, theories, models, etc. For instance, you would write "I worked as an account analyst last summer" but not "I worked as an Account Analyst last summer. Also, capitalize proper nouns, like the complete, formal names of a discipline, field, department or course e. Use active voice verbs.

Avoid passive voice verbs. Active voice begins with the subject, followed by the verb and the object … in that order. In APA 6th ed. This includes spacing once after the period in page citations. There are exceptions, however: This represents a change from APA 5th ed.

Format title pages correctly in APA, including all required elements and paying careful attention to capitalization e. See APA, 6th ed. Also choose titles carefully. Titles "should be a concise statement of the main topic and should identify the actual variables or theoretical issues under investigation and the relationship between them" 6th ed.

Format headings and subheadings correctly in APA. Be sure to review proper format for each level of heading: Place headings in proper position, bold-face some headings but not others, use proper title case or sentence case for capitalization, use end punctuation periods in some levels but not others, etc. See levels of heading in APA, 6th ed.

Except for commonly accepted abbreviations that are found in the dictionary spell out abbreviations on first use See APA, 6th ed. Limit and vary unit length. Avoid sentences that are no longer than 2. Proof and edit carefully. Many papers contain errors highlighted by Microsoft Word e. In addition to a spell check, proof and edit carefully with your own eye, since MS Word will not detect certain woods this should have been words that are spelled correctly but used in the wrong context.

Generally, spell out numbers that begin a sentence and numbers less than 10 see APA, 6th ed. Be careful about uses of that and which. Which normally begins a nonrestrictive clause that is not essential to the meaning of the sentence.

Precede the word which with a comma and a single space. The word that normally begins a restrictive clause that is essential to the meaning of the sentence. Do not use a comma before that.

Express dollar figures and percentages in numbers and symbols. Hyphenate compound modifiers words joined together to form a single adjective. Exercise care when using commas, semicolons, and colons. Use parallel structure or the same pattern when expressing ideas e. Correct John likes eating ice cream, watching movies, riding horses; Not Correct John likes to eat ice cream, watching movies, and rides horses.

If several ordinal grades are presented in a series of compound adjectives, then use hyphens with each. Sometimes these rules intersect in ways that may make a sentence look awkward; in the sentence below, it is correct to use a word for ninth and numerals for 10th and 11th , and although there is nothing wrong with this from an APA Style perspective, it may set off internal alarm bells for you.

Often the awkwardness can be resolved by rephrasing the sentence. Although this is not required, it may make you feel happier about your writing, and we are all for you feeling happy about your writing. For more on numeral usage, see Sections 4. If you have additional questions about how to write about grades in APA Style, leave a question in the comments section. Posted by Chelsea Lee at Twelfth-grade students received diplomas at graduation.

The first-grade students went on a field trip. The first graders… If several ordinal grades are presented in a series of compound adjectives, then use hyphens with each. The sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade students go to a middle school. Students in ninth, 10th, and 11th grades [this is correct] Often the awkwardness can be resolved by rephrasing the sentence.

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Use numerals to express numbers 10 and above, and use words to express numbers below 10 (see sections –, pp. –). This general rule was altered slightly from the fifth to the sixth edition of the Publication Manual.

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For more on numeral usage, see Sections – (pp. –) of the sixth edition of the Publication Manual. If you have additional questions about how to write about grades in APA Style, leave a question in the comments section.

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APA Style experts and guests tackle a variety of style topics each week in the APA Style Blog. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 nd printing).

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Most Common Rule. The most common and frequently used rule for writing numbers in APA style is determined by whether the number is under All numbers below 10 should be written out in word form. In general, figures are used for numbers 10 and above, and numbers below 10 are spelled out. However, there are some exceptions. APA Rules for Numbers 10 and Above. The sixth edition of the APA style guide states that figures should be used to represent numbers 10 and above (e.g., 15 of the participants).