The narrative takes place in Yalta, a vacation spot for Eastern Europeans and Russians on the northern coast of the Black Sea. As the story unfolds, we see how the color gray is an integral component in the sort of comfortable, yet, unresolved feeling that the relationship between Gurov and Anna emanates.
On this particular evening, the couple makes way for the jetty to watch the incoming ship. A crowd of people has gathered with many bouquets of flowers to greet arrivals. As the crowd thins out, the mood is calm and dark; the air is full of the lingering scents of the flowers that are long gone with the people and commotion. This becomes the optimal milieu for the couple to surrender to their desires, free from the probing stares of the public.
The change from dark to light signals Gurov really does care for this woman and is aware of his changing feelings, but he is far from learning to accept this. Once the relationship is consummated and Gurov is able to console Anna, the lightheartedness returns to the scene, as if a dark cloud has been lifted, and the two take off on an outing to Oreanda. It is at this point when the reality of what they have done sets in and the landscape begins to take on a resolute quality, ostensibly validating the intricate feeling the two are experiencing together.
Anton Chekhov is a master of portraying the complexities of the human condition and the difficulties we all have with communication, both inward and outward. A Brief History of the Short Story. Through the unfolding of the plot and the exquisite characterization of Mathilde and her husband, Maupassant offers readers a dramatic account of what could happen when a person is not satisfied with her place in life. According to Charters, there are five major parts of a plot.
The exposition explains the characters, the time period, and the present situation; the rising action introduces a major complication, with smaller conflicts occurring along the way; the climax, or the dramatic. Without the characters, the plot would be meaningless because the characters bring the plot to life.
Charters also explains that characters can be one of two types: The way an author chooses to develop a character affects the entire story, particularly the climax. If a character developed as a calm and level headed. Contrary to Mathilde is her husband, M. Loisel seems happy with the small things. Other than that small episode, M. Loisel remains fairly consistent throughout the length of the story.
The construction of the plot, such as the dramatic climax when Mathilde realizes she has lost the necklace, combined with the shaping of the two main characters, Mathilde and her husband, force the reader to realize the unspoken theme of the story. Without a strong plot that envelops the reader in the ongoing action, a story is not as powerful or effective; without good characterization of the main characters, there is no. If there is not an effective plot with identifiable characters, the theme of any story is lost to the reader, so clearly the three go hand in hand with each other.
In fact, this ability makes the reader feel as though Maupassant is telling the story for their ears and hearts only. Literary Romanticism and Realism-Poe. Introduction to Short Fiction. Story and Its Writer: The Story and Its. The True Lord of the Rings. There is little doubt that J. Tolkien has become, in his short reign within literary fiction, nothing short of legendary.
His stories, while only recently presented to the world, have ensnared and enthralled thousands of readers around the world. Tolkien, while certainly a master of all elements of fiction, displayed unquestionable proficiency in the areas of character and setting.
The world of Middle Earth is changing and all the creatures within it change as well. It is with these characters that readers identify, and this identification moves the readers from a detached, on-looking relationship to an involved, personal experience within the world Tolkien creates.
His development of characters seems to focus on one main character at a time, shifting from one to another. Specifically, Tolkien shifts from Bilbo to Frodo Baggins.
In developing those characters, much is learned about the world and characters around them. An observant reader will however notice that they are given insight into the character of dozens of characters. I says to him. When no one objects to this statement, readers are given insight into the character of all hobbits.
While Ham Gamgee may play only a small part in the rest of this story, readers also learn about the background of Sam Gamgee through this and other quotes from his father. By telling us not only what the character is like and how they change throughout the story, but also why and how they became who they are, Tolkien gives his readers a sense of personal attachment, as if they really know the characters in the story.
Tolkien, while introducing minor parts, never fails to develop their character. Even Radagast the Brown, a wizard who is mentioned briefly on no more than two occasions is no exception to this rule. Tolkien tells his readers where Radagast used to dwell and explains his relationship with Gandalf, the only character with whom Radagast interacts Tolkien Through these descriptions of all the characters in his novels, Tolkien provides an emotional connection with Middle Earth and makes the story seem less fiction and more like a dream in which readers are completely immersed.
The characterization makes readers feel as if they actually know the creatures in the story, while the setting makes readers feel as if they are walking alongside these characters on their journey through Middle Earth.
When these two are combined, readers feel as if they become an integral part of the story. She also mentions that Tolkien found it necessary to learn how to stew a rabbit before including such an event in his novel Corday 3. This perfectionism is evidenced greatly in his development of the setting. After the prologue and before the first chapter, Tolkien includes a detailed map of The Shire. At the end of the novel, he includes six additional maps, all of which are drawn in great detail and depict parts of the world he has created.
This simple definition is certainly fulfilled in nothing more than the maps and, perhaps, a dozen pages of the novel. Charters does not, however, end her definition there. As the story progresses, detailed descriptions are given of every area through which the story takes us.
In fact, Tolkien often presents background on parts of the setting before they are formally introduced to his readers. For instance, The Old Forest through which the Hobbits pass upon leaving The Shire is discussed in detail before the party even decides to travel through it. It is described as a dark, treacherous place, and is obviously a place the Hobbits fear Tolkien Because they have this background, readers are able to experience the feelings of apprehension, surprise, and wonder in the same way the characters experience them.
In his obsession with perfection, Tolkien created an entirely new world, complete with customs, languages, races, songs, and countries.
He also created a plethora of individuals through which his story is carried out and with which his readers identify. While he created this world and everything in it, he could not stray from the characters and lands he created. Because of this, he had little control over the events once he set them in motion. Tolkien, like the Lord of the Rings in the novel, had little control over the actions that took place.
Glossary of Literary Terms. Much of life results from choices we make. How we meet every circumstance, and also how we allow those circumstances to affect us dictates our life.
As we are given insight into these two people, their character and nature unfolds, presenting us with people we can relate to. In the exposition of the story, Chekhov immediately delves into his character generation, introducing us to both Anna Sergeevna and Dmitri Gurov, the main players in the story.
Chekhov immediately offers a feel for how each character will shape up to be, and presents a chance for us the reader to attach ourselves to these perhaps not-so-unique individuals. Without further ado, Chekhov expounds on his initial description of Dmitri through the next five paragraphs.
We learn that he is almost forty, has three children and a wife, but that he is not happy at home. He married early, and is not in love with his wife. Through this description, Dmitri gains a soul and personality. He becomes a round, developed character with whom we can relate and identify ourselves.
He expertly weaves location and setting into the development of theme. The story begins in Yalta, obviously in warmer weather, which sets a happy tone for the exposition.
However, once the couple meets, the weather begins to change. Chekhov illustrates how the characters are developing through the change in the weather. However, as the adulterous relationship continues, the weather become tumultuous, foreshadowing the turmoil that will soon begin inside both Anna and Dmitri.
There is no turning back at this point, and death may loom ahead. Through the environment the characters live in, we learn what they are going through, and understanding of the characters expand beyond mere words and actions. While the plot itself may be little more than that of a soap opera, the development and depth to which the characters are taken is far beyond any afternoon television program.
Sex, lies, and deceit do take place, but they are all off stage. Everyone faces difficult decisions in life, and Chekhov brings the inner mayhem to light.
Focus upon people rather than events impacts us in ways we cannot even describe. We are connected to the people in the story as we identify with the feelings and personalities of these fictional characters. We become more sensitive to human interaction, and begin to empathize with others, beyond the mere situation, and their deep inner struggles. This character development is essential to understanding of the theme. The theme is fully digested, and creates inspiration in the reader to begin their own quest for truth.
Chopin accomplishes this by using a specific point of view and unique plot to carry out her vision. These elements work together to create a theme that has the greatest impact on the reader.
According to Charters, a speaker with limited omniscience is able to know what is going on in the mind of a single character, but not have a full understanding of, or chooses not to reveal to the readers, the minds of all the characters Charters For example, the emotions and thoughts of Mrs. Mallard are fully described within the story.
We see her grief, but also the thoughts of freedom that begin to come to her mind Chopin Because the narrator does not show all the aspects of the story, it allows the fact of her husband being alive to be a surprise Chopin The narrator, because he or she is not a member of the story, may be able to be trusted more by the reader than a person involved directly in the story Charters The author, Kate Chopin, was a great admirer of Guy de Maupassant, a writer of the realist genre Agatucci 4.
According to Maupassant, a writer should find a new way of looking at a situation Charters Chopin, in attempting to imitate the genre embraced by this author, looked at a situation of the death of a husband in a unique way.
Chopin did not portray the accepted norms of society. She did not state that the wife could not go on without her husband. By contrast, she viewed her story with a new concept, that of a wife feeling empowered to go on living because her husband was no longer alive. The thoughts and actions of these characters can be seen in the development of the plot. Point of view is how a reader is able to look into a story; the plot is the arrangement of the incidents themselves Charter , The sequences within this story are quite short because this story occurs in the course of a single hour.
Without the view which allows the reader to see inside the mind of Mrs. Mallard, the reader would not be aware of the true conflict. Without this insight, a reader might assume, like Mrs. The point of view allows the reader to see the true conflict within the plot and to sense the freedom that is eventually embraced by the protagonist Chopin The life of the author seems to have an impact on the plot. Kate Chopin had a very similar experience as Mrs.
Mallard in the tragic death of her father. This suggests Chopin sympathized with Mrs. Mallard, who had found new freedom in the death of a loved one Chopin Kate Chopin had a bicultural background. This may have given Chopin confidence to explore topics not generally discussed by the society of her day. The plot itself has some very distinct characteristics that are of the literary realism genre. First, it is believable.
Most people believe that heart disease and train accidents do exist Chopin Authors writing within this style often chose to look at the nature of human beings Agatucci 3. The plot begins by depicting the reaction of Mrs. The evolution of the emotional nature of Mrs. Mallard is described as she sits alone Chopin Finally, we see the nature of society at that time, totally ignorant of the true feelings felt by the wife about her husband. Agatucci describes this impact on characters such as Mrs.
The reader can better understand the situation of Mrs. Her destiny was that of devoting herself to her husband. First, the point of view allows us to see the inner emotions expressed by Mrs. Without a speaker with limited omniscience, a reader would never realize what was truly being felt by the protagonist, and the theme would be lost. Because the narrator is outside the story and could be considered more objective, the reader is more likely to believe that these feelings experienced by Mrs.
Mallard or the sister had told the story, readers would have gotten two different, biased accounts. The plot allows Mrs. Mallard to explore her feelings of repression and finally accept the fact that she can rejoice in the freedom of being a widow Chopin The surprise ending, the return of Mr. Mallard and the death of Mrs. Mallard, gives the reader a chance to understand the ironic beliefs of society Chopin The irony can be seen in the totally contradictory feelings of the protagonist and society.
Professor of English, Humanities Dept. In-Class Presentation, English The Elements of Fiction. Compact 6 th Edition. The New York Times 30 Dec. Louisiana State University Press, World Literature Criticism Supplement , Vol. Literary Analysis of Maupassant's "The Necklace". Flaubert's teaching principles suggested that the "writer must look at everything to find some aspect of it that no one has yet seen or expressed," thus providing the reader a new or different view of life Charters, "Maupassant" header Maupassant succeeded in being a writer "who had entered into himself and looked out upon life through his own being and with his own eyes," according to Kate Chopin He wrote "realistic fiction" and greatly influences writers still Charters, "Brief History" The meaning of " The Necklace " is developed through the depiction of the characters and the plot of the story.
Maupassant stated that the story is not only a form of entertainment but a tool "to make us think and to make us understand the deep and hidden meaning of events" "Writer's" I found that the theme of "The Necklace" exhibits the importance of honesty and being happy with who you are.
It shows that things are not always what they seem, material things do not define the person and that money cannot solve all problems and may in fact create them. Donald Adamson describes the main character, Mathilde, as a "poor but an honest woman," I disagree with his opinion. Mathilde's dishonesty changes her life and forces her to know "the horrible existence of the needy" Maupassant This conflict within Mathilde drives her throughout the story.
Her dedicated husband, M. Loisel, is content with their life and wishes to make her happy despite everything he must endure. After obtaining an invitation to a ball that was an "awful trouble to get," he eagerly takes it home to his wife who is ungrateful because she does not feel that she has anything suitable to wear After having a new dress made, Mathilde can't imagine going to the ball without "a single jewel" so she borrows a beautiful necklace from her friend Mme.
The day of the ball proved to be everything Mathilde imagined, but it all ends when she loses the necklace. Loisel and Mathilde find a replacement necklace, they spend "ten years in grinding poverty until they finally paid off their debt," only to discover that the necklace was not a diamond necklace but just "mere costume jewellery" Adamson.
Charters defines plot as the "sequence of events in a story and their relation to one another as they develop and usually resolve a conflict" "Elements" In the exposition of "The Necklace," Maupassant provides a detailed "character portrait" of Mathilde and offers some important details about M. It is obvious that conflict exists inside of Mathilde. She feels she is too good for the life she leads.
She is unhappy with who she is and dreams of being someone else. On the contrary, M. Loisel is happy and satisfied to come home to his wife who prepares him an "economical but tasty meal" Smith. Mathilde is very materialistic and believes that riches would end her suffering, she won't even visit a rich friend and "former classmate at the convent" because she is so jealous and envious. The rising action of the plot begins when M.
Loisel presents the invitation to Mathilde. This presentation only aggravates the conflict that exists within Mathilde and she cannot imagine going to the ball in any of her old dresses.
Mathilde sheds two pitiful tears and M. Loisel "quickly decides to sacrifice his savings" so that she may purchase a new dress Smith. Mathilde is not satisfied with just a new dress! She believes it would be a disgrace to show up at the ball without jewelry. She must not "look poor among other women who are rich" Maupassant So she borrows a "superb necklace of diamonds" from Mme. In this passage Maupassant convinces the reader that the necklace is real diamonds; "he misleads the reader into believing that the necklace really is valuable" Adamson.
This creates more excitement for the climax of the story when Mathilde loses the necklace on her way home from the ball. Loisel responds by going to search for the necklace to no avail. He does not find the necklace and instructs Mathilde to lie to Mme. Forestier and tell her that she has broken the necklace and will need time to have it repaired. If Mathilde would have chosen to be honest at this point, Mme. Forestier would have told her that the necklace was only "paste…worth at most five hundred francs" Instead they find a suitable replacement necklace that costs thirty-six thousand francs.
After one week M. Loisel "had aged five years," and was forced to use his inheritance and borrow money "risking his signature without even knowing if he could meet it" to buy the replacement necklace Maupassant, "Necklace" Upon returning the necklace to her friend, Mathilde discovered the "horrible existence of the needy" They "dismissed their servant" and gave up their flat.
Mathilde became a "woman of impoverished households - strong and hard and rough" She was forced to haggle and defend their "miserable money" It took them ten years to pay off all of their debts.
Mathilde was no longer pretty and charming, she now had "frowsy hair… and red hands" These trials and tribulations represent the falling action of the story, where the conflict is moving toward a resolution Charters, "Elements" Loisel, but I do not feel that her actions were heroic.
She was just fulfilling the duties that were always expected of her, but that she felt she was too good for. I do not believe that dishonesty is a trait of a hero. Perhaps if Mathilde would have been honest with Mme. Forestier from the beginning about losing the necklace, she would have explained that it was not real diamonds and they could have avoided all of the hardships they endured.
Some may argue that Mathilde was heroic because she took responsibility for her mistake, gave up her lifestyle and worked to repay the debt. It was admirable that she did not expect her husband to bear the burden alone. The conclusion of "The Necklace" undoubtedly contains an element of surprise. Mathilde discovers that the necklace was not made of diamonds, but imitation gems. This devastating discovery leaves many unanswered questions.
Maupassant's narrator uses limited omniscient narration by describing Mathilde with her thoughts. She is a round character capable of choosing alternative responses to the situations presented to her Charters, "Elements" I believe Mathilde is both a dynamic and a static character. She is dynamic because she does undergo a significant change and takes on the duties of a poverty stricken housewife.
Yet she remains static in that she is still not content with her life and dreams of that "gay evening long ago, of that ball where she had been so beautiful" Maupassant, "Necklace" Loisel is also a round character, the "play and pull of his actions and responses to situations" could be observed throughout the story Charters, "Elements" When Mathilde is unhappy with the invitation to the ball he offers to buy her a new dress.
When she wants jewelry he recommends borrowing from Mme. Forestier and when she loses the necklace he collects the money to replace it. Loisel does experience some change, he is a static character. I believe he is content and happy with his life throughout the story.
He continues to work hard and stays dedicated to Mathilde. The themes of "The Necklace" are evident throughout the plot of the story. If only Mathilde would have been honest with Mme. Forestier and happy with who she was, she could have prevented the whole ordeal.
Her misfortune proves to the reader that honesty is the best choice. Maupassant warns the reader of the afflictions that vanity may cause. There was no need for Mathilde to wear a diamond necklace; she was too concerned about what others would think of her. Your literature essay will examine how this theme is presented and provide evidence from the literary work itself. You must develop your essay with supporting ideas, quotes, and specific examples from the text.
The possible themes for your literature essay are nearly endless. As you can see, the potential subject matter for your literature essay expands widely across all kinds of literary works. The plot is a key part of the literary work you essay will examine.
The main plot points of any work of literature serve as a vessel for the intended reaction, emotions, and thoughts that come from the work as a whole. These main elements make up any successful plot and are used to present the main themes and concepts of the literary work. Keep in mind where your story, or essay takes place and what the surroundings are like. Setting is an important element that contributes to the overall themes of any literary work. A properly presented setting help the reader to relate more to the characters because it provides them with a better sense of who they are and how they feel.
In fictional works, settings can be used as tools to build entire worlds where a story may take place. In non-fictional works, a setting is used to describe what exactly the surroundings of the time were like, describing moods, or what was happening at a specific moment. A lot can be gleaned about how the characters view the world by the culture and atmosphere of the setting. Tell the reader not only about the main character, but about all the supporting characters as well.
Another important element to note in a literature essay are the character types presented in the work. The development of a good character is imperative because the message is better communicated when readers can empathize and understand the characters. Describe any literary traits, or devices used to in the literature you're describing in your essay. For some writers, their style is so developed that they can be identified by their writing style, alone.
The style, technique and rhetorical devices employed by a writer are important communication tools in any literary work. A literature essay is structured similarly to other types of essays, but the focuses more on the literature itself.
Begin by brainstorming a possible topic for your essay. Make a list of everything that comes to mind when you think about the poem, play, or novel. This will not only get your brain warmed up and ideas flowing, but it will also help you to hone in on an interesting and debate-worthy focus for your essay. Next, formulate your argument.
What is your perspective, interpretation, evaluative judgment, or critical evaluation? Remember, this is not simply an opinion paper.
Try to find reputable academic sources for your literature essay. The thesis statement tells your reader what to expect and also helps you stay on topic. Writing a thesis statement will help you and your audience understand your argument. Make sure it is specific, detailed, and debatable and states the purpose of your essay--the point you are trying to make.
Clearly state your argument. Some professors may want to see a statement such as "I argue that", or "It is argued here", or some variation. The thesis statement generally comes at the end of your introduction , which is the first paragraph of your essay and outlines what the essay will be about. It would also be beneficial to include relevant background information that relates to your thesis to help the reader understand the position you are taking.
Here is where you will introduce the topic, name the piece of literature you are writing about be sure to italicize longer works and use quotation marks for shorter works , name the author, and give a brief summary of the piece.
The body of your essay will generally be paragraphs of sentences each and will explain your argument in more detail. Here is where your research comes in--you will need to provide evidence from outside sources or the text itself to back up your argument. Textual evidence consists of summary, paraphrase, specific details, and direct quotations.
Every paragraph in the body must connect to your thesis statement. Start and each paragraph with a topic sentence and end with a conclusion sentence that links to the thesis statement.
The final paragraph is your conclusion, which sums up and concludes your literature essay. It is vital that you do not introduce any new ideas in the conclusion. Simply restate your thesis statement and the evidence that supports it using different language than you did in the introduction and body. You can also summarize the main points you have already made, or make a comment from a different perspective about the literary work you are analyzing.
This will be on a separate page of its own. Be sure to include the piece of literature you are writing about as well as any outside sources you have used in your essay. Finally, your literature essay will need a title. The title is the first thing a reader sees, so it is essential that you give your essay a title captures their attention. Be creative--do not simply title your paper the name of the piece of literature. It is best to leave the title until last, so you can choose something catchy that really captures the essence of your essay.
Literature essays are written in MLA format. In addition to a Works Cited page, you will need to include Author, Page in-text citations. For more information on how to correctly use MLA, visit our writer help page. While writing literature essays about plays, novels, and poems follow the same general guidelines and format, writing about poetry can be a bit trickier and more involved.
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What people are saying Ultius Writing Services 5. How buying a sample literature essay from Ultius can help with your project Ultius works with American college graduates who are all experienced essay writers A literature essay is an examination and analysis of a piece of literature , either in part or as a whole. Literature essay experts Ultius writers understand critical elements of a literature essay such as: Character breakdowns Descriptive epithet Metaphor and simile And other literary devices.
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